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Some countries have both middle school and high school while some countries combine these into one school called secondary school.

In secondary school in Ireland there are 6 years. We would never use the terms high school or middle school etc. The years are 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th year. 1st years would be around 13 years of age, 4th year is an optional year so 6th years are either 17 or 18 years of age.

How should I express the years in secondary school in Chinese? Would it be some combination of 初x,中x and 高x?

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United States 美国 Age/年龄 Ireland 爱尔兰 Age/年龄 China (most parts) 中国(大部分地区) Age/年龄 Shanghai 上海 Some cities in Shandong and Heilongjiang, etc. 山东和黑龙江等地的一些城市
Junior Kindergarten (optional) (幼儿园)小班(可选) 3-4 years/岁
Preschool 托儿所 4-5 years/岁 Junior Infants 小班 4-5 years/岁 Intermdiate Kindergarten (optional) (幼儿园)中班(可选) 4-5 years/岁
Kindergarten 幼儿园 5-6 years/岁 Senior Infants 大班 5-6 years/岁 Senior Kindergarten (optional) (幼儿园)大班(可选) 5-6 years/岁
1st grade 一年级 6-7 years/岁 1st class 一年级 6-7 years/岁 1st grade (小学)一年级 6-7 years/岁
2nd grade 二年级 7-8 years/岁 2nd class 二年级 7-8 years/岁 2nd grade (小学)二年级 7-8 years/岁
3rd grade 三年级 8-9 years/岁 3rd class 三年级 8-9 years/岁 3rd grade (小学)三年级 8-9 years/岁
4th grade 四年级 9-10 years/岁 4th class 四年级 9-10 years/岁 4th grade (小学)四年级 9-10 years/岁
5th grade 五年级 10-11 years/岁 5th class 五年级 10-11 years/岁 5th grade (小学)五年级 10-11 years/岁
6th grade 六年级 11-12 years/岁 6th class 六年级 11-12 years/岁 6th grade (小学)六年级 11-12 years/岁 Prep Secondary (common) / 6th grade 预初(常见)/六年级 Lower Secondary 1 (common) / 6th grade 初一(常见)/初中一年级(常见)/六年级
7th grade 七年级 12-13 years/岁 1st year 中一/中学一年级 12-13 years/岁 Lower Secondary 1 (common) / 7th grade 初一(常见)/初中一年级(常见)/七年级 12-13 years/岁 Lower Secondary 2 (common) / 7th grade 初二(常见)/初中二年级(常见)/七年级
8th grade 八年级 13-14 years/岁 2nd year 中二/中学二年级 13-14 years/岁 Lower Secondary 2 (common) / 8th grade 初二(常见)/初中二年级(常见)/八年级 13-14 years/岁 Lower Secondary 3 (common) / 8th grade 初三(常见)/初中三年级(常见)/八年级
Freshman (9th grade) 九年级 14-15 years/岁 3rd year 中三/中学三年级 14-15 years/岁 Lower Secondary 3 (common) / 9th grade 初三(常见)/初中三年级(常见)/九年级 14-15 years/岁 Lower Secondary 4 (common) / 9th grade 初四(常见)/初中四年级(常见)/九年级
Sophomore (10th grade) 十年级 15-16 years/岁 4th year (transition year) (optional) 中四/中学四年级 (过渡年) (可选) 15-16 years/岁 Upper Secondary 1 高一/高中一年级 15-16 years/岁
Junior (11th grade) 十一年级 16-17 years/岁 5th year 中五/中学五年级 16-17 years/岁 Upper Secondary 2 高二/高中二年级 16-17 years/岁
Senior (12th grade) 十二年级 17-18 years/岁 6th year 中六/中学六年级 17-18 years/岁 Upper Secondary 3 高三/高中三年级 17-18 years/岁
Freshman (1st year undergraduate) 大一/大学一年级 18-19 years/岁 1st year undergraduate 大一/大学一年级 1st year undergraduate 大一/大学一年级
Sophomore (2nd year undergraduate) 大二/大学二年级 19-20 years/岁 2nd year undergraduate 大二/大学二年级 2nd year undergraduate 大二/大学二年级
Junior (3rd year undergraduate) 大三/大学三年级 20-21 years/岁 3rd year undergraduate 大三/大学三年级 3rd year undergraduate 大三/大学三年级
Senior (4th year undergraduate) 大四/大学四年级 21-22 years/岁 4th year undergraduate 大四/大学四年级
1st year (master’s program) 研一/硕士研究生一年级 22-23 years/岁 postgraduate master’s course 硕士研究生 1st year (master’s program) 研一/硕士研究生一年级
2nd year (master’s program) 研二/硕士研究生二年级 23-24 years/岁 2nd year (master’s program) 研二/硕士研究生二年级
3rd year (master’s program) 研三/硕士研究生三年级
1st year (doctoral program) 博一/博士研究生一年级 24-25 years/岁 1st year (doctoral program) 博一/博士研究生一年级 1st year (doctoral program) 博一/博士研究生一年级
2nd year (doctoral program) 博二/博士研究生二年级 25-26 years/岁 2nd year (doctoral program) 博二/博士研究生二年级 2nd year (doctoral program) 博二/博士研究生二年级
3rd year (doctoral program) 博三/博士研究生三年级 26-27 years/岁 3rd year (doctoral program) 博三/博士研究生三年级 3rd year (doctoral program) 博三/博士研究生三年级
4th year (doctoral program) 博四/博士研究生四年级 27-28 years/岁 4th year (doctoral program) 博四/博士研究生四年级
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  • We often use 七/八/九年级 too and they are more formal because of 九年义务教育(in Chinese mainland).
    – T-Pioneer
    Aug 25 '21 at 8:41
  • It'd be worth mentioning some places adopting a 5-4 school scheme (5 years of primary + 4 years of lower secondary) do not use the Shanghai naming scheme. “初一” is grade 6 (and 初四 for grade 9) in cities adopting the 5-4 scheme in Heilongjiang and Shandong.
    – xngtng
    Aug 25 '21 at 9:16
  • Of course then there were also other schemes, sometimes due to historical coincidences.
    – xngtng
    Aug 25 '21 at 9:22
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It could be just 中学 the combination of 初中 and 高中. Separately, 初一,初二,初三,高一,高二,高三.

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