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In Chinese, 十萬八千里; 十万八千里; shí wàn bā qiān lǐ, 108,000 li, means a great distance. Does anyone knows why they chose 108,000? Is there a poem or historical reason behind this number?

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There doesn't seem to be a definitive answer, but one possibility is that the number 108,000 is derived from the 108 auspicious symbols in Tibetan Buddhism. Each of these symbols is said to bring good fortune and blessings, so together they are thought to be especially auspicious.

Additionally, there are said to be 108 energy lines that run through the human body, and 108 beads on a Buddhist rosary.

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It probably came from the storybook "西遊記". Below is conservation between "孫悟空(行者)", 沙僧 and 八戒:

沙僧道:「師兄,我們到雷音寺有多少遠?」

行者道:「十萬八千里。十停中還不曾走了一停哩。」

八戒道:「哥啊,要走幾年才得到?」

行者道:「這些路,若認二位賢弟,便十來日也可到;若認我走,一日也好走五十遭,還見日色,若論師傅走,莫想!莫想!」

其後便有此一說 - 孫悟空一個跟斗十萬八千里... to indicate his extremely powerful ability to travel between locations separated by very long distance. Today, people say "差了十萬八千里" to mean two things are "too far apart", or "not even come close".

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十萬八千里 usually means ‘not even close’ or ‘huge difference between something’.

e.g.

蝸牛前進的速度跟獵豹比根本差十萬八千里好嘛!

你的球技跟麥克喬登比,他是天,你是地,相差十萬八千里不止唷!

他現在的中文會話能力,跟剛來台灣的時候比,已經差了十萬八千里!

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