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The sentence is : 好徒儿你就饶了为师伐。 The general meaning, is as i understand in a very literally translation “good apprentice ,you just forgive the teacher / 伐 ” The original translation (the one that comes with the sentence) is "Please spare me , apprentice" i know there is a "illeism" , the speaker is referring to himself as 师 ,in 3rd person to his 徒儿.

But i don't have a little idea what the function of 伐 is.

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If I'm not mistaken, 伐 is a modal particle similar to 吧. Here it expresses the imperative mood, so the original translation doesn't include it at all.

As a native speaker, I think it comes from Wu Chinese, because in my experience I usually hear people from Shanghai (or neighbour provinces/cities) saying it. As another example they may say 先吃饭好伐?(Let's have meal first, alright?)

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In modern mandarin, it's a mistake. No body would say like this.

伐 only should occur in "讨伐", "伐木", means use some tool/weapon to destruct something.

in your sentence, 伐 is only a 拟声词/代词, similar with 格了半颗马路牙子, 胳了半 means 手肘, only a 拟声词.

就饶了为师伐 = 就饶了为师吧.

As far as I know, 伐 is from the Shanghai language.

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好徒儿你就饶了为师伐。
good disciple you then leave alone me(为师) fa
Dear student, please stop disturbing me yeah.

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