In terms of understanding what the author of those two passages is trying to say, I think the messages conveyed are clear enough, though the way he chose to say them may be, shall I say, "individualistic", or may be even "poetic" It's about style, I suppose.
I'll take each passage in turn.
Let's take the easy part of the first one first:- "...要培养子女的责任感, ....家长首先就要敬业...."
The simple message is that "in order to inculcate a sense of responsibility in children,...parents should first dedicate...."
Now comes the hard part:- "一爱一岗" By itself it is unintelligible. But for the sake of today's discussion, let's see how it fits in with the rest of the passage.
Given the simple meaning of the first part of the passage, could we then say that 一爱一岗 means, in the context of the whole passage, "...in order to inculcate a sense of responsibility in children,...parents should first of all dedicate a mountain of love....", or words to that effect. 一爱一岗 = "a hill of a love"?
Now for the next passage which I think is much easier than the first.
The relevant part of the passage:- "...能见百步以外的东西，却看不见自己的睫一毛一"
It simply means:- "...able to see things a 100 paces away, but unable to see one's own eyelashes..." The "一毛一" simply means, (for poetic effect), "each of one hair"
So, to paraphrase the passage:- "...able to see things a 100 paces away, but unable to see each of one hair of one's eyelashes..."
Please do this simple experiment:- Try to see something far away, (no problem right?); now try and see your own eyelashes?
Hence the King's advisor said in the passage "....人的智慧往往就同人的眼睛一样,能见百步以外的东西，却看不见自己的睫一毛一", meaning "the intelligence of people is often like human eyes"; able to see things a 100 paces away, but unable to see even one hair of one's own eyelashes...", meaning, people tend to talk of great things easily, but unable to grasp simple ideas just as easily.
This reminds me of 越近越朦朧 越遠越情濃, meaning to the effect that people tend to be concerned with things which have not much personal importance or concerns, but neglect things or matters which are near and dear to them. Like some people who want to save the World but couldn't clean up their own backyard.