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The word "industry" in English-Chinese dictionary have multiple meanings, including both "工业" and "行业", but I think there are differences between "工业" and "行业". What is the most accurate translation of "工业" and "行业" in English ?

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Hard and fast separation of the terms may be elusive. Seems to me, 行业 can include service industries, whereas 工业 does not.

行业一般是指其按生产同类产品
'commercial industry' generally refers different economic activity categories, such as the production of the same kind of goods
或具有相同工艺过程
or having the same industrial process
或提供同类劳动服务划分的经济活动类别,
or providing the same service,
如饮食行业、服装行业、机械行业等。
for example the catering industry, the clothing industry, or the mechanical engineering industry.

工业是对自然资源的开采、采集和对各种原材料进行加工的社会物质生产部门。
"Processing Industry" refers to that branch of economic activity responsible for the extraction, collection and processing of all kinds of raw materials for socially useful material products.

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  • Seems 行业 should be translate to "industry", but "Processing Industry" sounds a bit unnatural to me.
    – fad99daf
    Jul 3 at 12:47
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工业, "industry", is a specific type of business, or trade, that deals with labor and production making.

行业 means "line of work/business", or "walk of life", in 工业, 商業, 農業, or...

  • 你是榦(從事)什麼行业的 - 工业,商業,還是農業?
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行业 - industry/ field of

Example:

造船行业 - anything related to shipbuilding

製衣行业 - anything related to clothes manufacturing

工业 - industry (of manufacturing)

Example:

造船工业 - the shipbuilding industry that manufactures ship

製衣工业 - the clothes manufacturing industry that manufactures clothes

Any line of work can be called a 行业; one has to manufacture something to be a 工业

You can have 娛樂行业 or 飲食行业 but not 娛樂工业 or 飲食工业 because the entertainment field and the restaurant field don't manufacture goods

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