This is a 语病 ("faulty wording") sentence under the section 逻辑不通 (illogical):

刘云, 新汉语水平考试,HSK6级攻略,阅读, 2011, p.17. (image; alternative)

It seems intended to mean something like

In the current world, aside from multimedia books, there are also printed books.

My 语感 makes me feel that the overall structure 目前世界上除了……以外,还有…… is correct; I'm fairly sure I've seen comparable structures many times over. So maybe (a) printed books is considered an example of a multimedia book, or (b) 用纸印刷的书 is illogical, and should be 在纸上印刷的书.

Question: How is 目前世界上除了多媒体形式的书以外,还有用纸印刷的书 illogical?

  • Isn't printed material a part of multimedia?世上除了武器之外還有手槍 would also be illogical
    – Tang Ho
    Jul 7, 2022 at 5:22
  • This is about HSK6, I guess it doesnt allow such way of saying, because in today's Chinese printed book is unmarked while electric multimedia book is marked. Just like in American meat means beef, while in China 肉 usually means 猪肉。I personally dont like this kind of thing becomming a test quiz, but every exam follow its own fixed rules. Jul 17, 2022 at 9:34

4 Answers 4


This is because logically, a book is a printed book if not otherwise stated. The sentence '目前世界上除了多媒体形式的书以外,还有用纸印刷的书。' somewhat implies that multimedia books are the usual books and printed books are the special books.

It would be better if you switch them: '目前世界上除了用纸印刷的书以外,还有多媒体形式的书。'

  • 1
    And also, as @TangHo’s comment to the question says, multimedia books cover all media, including paper, so printed books are a subset of multimedia books. Just switching them around doesn’t fully fix it either; you’d have to add something along the lines of 还有其他媒体形式的书 to separate out the paper books, otherwise you’d still be saying something comparable to “Aside from children, there are also people”. Jul 8, 2022 at 0:50
  • 1
    @JanusBahsJacquet Thank you for your comment. However, I have a different opinion on this. I think that a printed book does not qualify to be called a multimedia book. A multimedia book could be a e-book, a printed book with an audio pen, a printed book with some fanyc VR stuffs, etc. A book is by default a printed book. Jul 8, 2022 at 2:40

I searched for a few papers on 除了……以外, and changed my views on it.

《“除了...以外”的语义辨析》《略论“除了...以外”与“都”、“还”的搭配规则》《“除了...以外”用法研究》 all discusses the semantics of 除了……以外, on the basis that it IS valid.

My previous impression may come from its semantic distribution. 除了……以外 has variations 除了、除去、除……外、除……以外、除……之外. They are not pragmatically equivalent. In different contexts, one of them may be preferred.


除了……以外 is 句式杂糅. It mixes 除……以/之外 and 除了…….





  • I feel nothing wrong with 除了……以外. E.g. 除了你之外,还有他。I think Brian Cheung's answer is spot on.
    – dan
    Jul 7, 2022 at 11:14
  • @dan Thanks for pointing this out. I agree.
    – lilysirius
    Jul 7, 2022 at 12:24

The sentence structure itself is fine. It's the use of "多媒体" in "多媒体形式的书" that makes it strange.

In Chinese, "多媒体" usually refer to audio-visual media that's often animated and interactive - as in "多媒体教室" a multimedia classroom, where teachers and students do their presentation, perform show, etc.

It's better if one just uses "电子书", which means digital book.

  • 1
    多媒体形式的书 would also include audiobooks, which are not necessarily digital, as well as books in other non-traditional formats. Jul 8, 2022 at 0:42
  • @JanusBahsJacquet Sure. But I'd like to point out that, the only form of audiobook that's not digital that still remains would be tape-based ones. For education fairness, the government still require textbook publishers to provide tape-based media, but CDs and downloadable MP3 files are becoming more common.
    – DannyNiu
    Jul 8, 2022 at 1:05

The pattern of the sentence - "除了(except)……以外(besides)....还有(yet there is/are)" implies there is something else, or alternatives, besides the norm. Normally, the "norm" should not carry a lesser weight/importance than the exception/alternative(s).

The sentence "目前世界上除了多媒体形式的书以外,还有用纸印刷的书。" draws the ire, because it treats "多媒体形式的书" as the "norm" that has equal weight/importance, or outweigh the alternative/exception - "用纸印刷的书", a stance has not yet been fully established and supported among "all audiences".

As the books in forms of multi-media have gained ground very fast in recent years, note that this sentence can be perfectly fine if it is in a speech to today's young school kids, or a group of computer-centric persons, as a reminder or warning. Or, in the next millennium. :)

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