I'm familiar with some basics of the 的 usage. But what exactly does it do in this sentence?...Thank you in advance! Would welcome any other examples...
When "的" is at the end of a predictive sentence, or statement, it indicates the "certainty" of the prediction or occurrence of the stated event. So, "你会感冒的" is equal to saying "You (certainly) will catch a cold".
Here is a related thread that has an excellent answer on this type of sentence structure. "我一定会去看他的"
Also, on the general uses of "的" - https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%9A%84/453974
的 here is a 语气词(Modal Particle). It's not as strong as the English word "certainly", "really", etc unless you put an emphasis on 的 during speech.
Here is the dictionary definition:
Compare 他什么时候走 with 他什么时候走的. 他什么时候走 means when will he leave whilst 他什么时候走的 means when did he leave. With 的，it adds that the fact already takes place. (已然).
会感冒 vs 会感冒的
的 adds the effect that 感冒 will happen in the future. Compare 衣服穿少了会感冒 and 衣服穿少了会感冒的. Both denotes the same meaning. 衣服穿少了会感冒的 is more conversational in practice. The brief version 衣服穿少了会感冒 is more likely to be used where the neat style is preferred.