Lately, I handed in a translation saying:

那时, 有人多次无故破坏我的电动轮椅。甚至于打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜、在椅座上灭烟头,以及小便的程度。

After transmitting it in, I though 以及 would probably be replaced with 並且。But to my great surprise I found my professor striking 以及 and opting for 和。Is there an explanation for this? She also struck 的程度, but perhaps I should ask that separately.

From my reading examples it seems that I can always replace 和 with 以及. If anything the latter’s scope of application is slightly broader.


There is the possibility that she just wants to simplify the language. She also replaced 彼時 with 那時;豺狼当道之處 with 惡人橫行的地方 and a host of other similar cases. The German original had not been colloquial, so I had Not made any effort to stay colloquial either.

Normally I just ask her; but since there is just one question session for dozens of students (who have collectively received hundreds of corrections), I thought I’d ask the cases that may have general answers here.

2 Answers 2


striking 以及 and opting for 和

in "[A] 以及 [B]" ([A] also [B]), [A] is the primary and [B] is the secondary,

in "[A] 和 [B]" ([A] and [B]), [A] and [B] are of equal importance

in "[A] 甚至 [B] ([A] even [B]), [B] is at a higher degree compared to [A]

Comparing 打断椅子扶手, 打碎后视镜, 在椅座上灭烟头, and 小便

小便 should be of equal importance compared to the other three, therefore, 和 is preferable to 以及

She also struck 的程度

The word 的 turned "打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜,在椅座上灭烟头和小便" into an adjectival phrase that modified 程度 --> (to the degree of) "打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜,在椅座上灭烟头和小便

  • 甚至于[去到]打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜、在椅座上灭烟头,以及小便[的程度]。 --> describe the severity

  • 甚至于打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜、在椅座上灭烟头,以及小便。 --> list the damages

  • So, if I want to stress the severity, I should keep 的程度?
    – Ludi
    Jan 6, 2023 at 14:19
  • 1
    I agree that you keep "的程度", but it is better to use "甚至到了 ... 的程度". 甚至到了打断椅子扶手,打碎后视镜、在椅座上灭烟头,以及在椅座上小便的程度。
    – PdotWang
    Jan 6, 2023 at 21:31
  1. Both 以及 and 和 share the meaning of "and", however, 以及 also means "as well as" and "together/along with", which is often used to refer to/linking a third person or item
  • "你以及其他人(you and I as well as other people)" sounds better than "你其他人(you and I and other people)".

Note that in the example above, 和 can replace 以及, but the reverse is not true (Incorrect - "你以及以及其他人". Also, when there are only two persons/items involved, such as "你我" can't be replaced with "你以及我"; and "纸笔" can't be replaced with "纸以及笔".

  1. I agree, 以及 can be replaced with 並且, and 的程度 shall be eliminated or replaced with 的情形(situation) - 在椅座上灭烟头並且小便的情形.

3)IMO, I will modify the sentence as:

  • 那时, 有人多次无故破坏我的电动轮椅。打断椅子扶手打碎后视镜更有在椅座上灭烟头甚至于小便的(情形)。Or,

  • 那时, 有人多次无故破坏我的电动轮椅。打断椅子扶手打碎后视镜更有在椅座上灭烟头小便的(情形)。

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.