I agree with your argument with 秀. The meaning of show can be seen as an extension of its original meanings, it's 会意字 and share the same sound. In my experience, before I was told its new meaning is transliterated from English, I thought it was native. The same experience goes for 卡.
And your comment with characters with 口. I can't persuade you further in that regard, but I stand corrected for its use in chemistry. In fact, 口 is used as a 形旁 in chemical names, like 嘌、呤、嘧、啶, not a marker for transliteration. They are 形声字, 口 indicates that it forms a 闭环, which is commonly seen in organic compounds.
The answer is no. (The following bold characters are also transliterated.)
If including characters for chemicals, there are some that are both 会意 and 形声, for example 氢、氯、氮、溴、碳. Apart from element names, many terms for chemical compounds are 会意字, e.g. 烷、烯、炔、羟、羰、羧、巯、膦、胂、铵、锍. To understand how they 会意 one needs adequate knowledge for chemistry. I give one example here. Oxygen is historically called 養, hydrogen 輕. 羟 is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen, and the character put together part of each character and use that part as a semantic reference to the corresponding element.
氯、胂、铵 are 会意字 and transliterated. For the latter two, we can probably find more in its like. To begin with, find the name of any transliterated element name. Then we check for the name of their compounds. The name of its compounds are likely to have the same stem in the source language. The Chinese counterparts are usually newly-coined or revitalized 会意字, with one part, like in the example 申 is used as a semantic and phonetic reference to 砷, while the other part indicates with which it's compounded, like 月 means it contains nitrogen. Since transliteration in chemistry usually only take one syllable, chances are that the coined 会意字 for the compound also transliterate the source word. (To distinguish the Chinese element name and its compound name, we alter the tone of the latter. However, in grade school, the correct tone is mostly not used and confusion is easily resolved in context.)
Among the above 烯、炔、硫 also take into account the pronunciation of the source word to some extent.
I'm not sure if your question limits time periods. If not, some Buddhist terms also qualify. For example, 劫 from Sanskrit kalpa. It's 会意字 and transliteration, and semantically an extension of its original meaning. Probably more in this category. Since the loans happened quite long ago and the sound of spoken Chinese has changed significantly since then, it could be hard to identify at first glance.
Related words include 圐圙 from Mongolian хүрээ. Though it's transliterated into two syllables, the two characters are 会意字 and have exactly the same meaning. The sound is assigned according to the source language.
In daily life, 咖啡 is transliteration, and the radical 口 indicates it's something to eat or drink. The same goes for 啤（酒）. But 咖、啡、啤 are not newly-coined but revitalized for transliterated words.
Using 会意字 to transliterate foreign words is rare, mainly because, I think, is that foreign words are usually more than one variable and the morphemes of Chinese is predominantly monosyllable. 泵 is one of those rare cases where the source word is monosyllable. There are so many dead Chinese characters. To find a 会意字 that creates a semantic match and assign a new sound to it, just like 泵, is not difficult. Another monosyllable source word example is 卡 (会意字). In this case we didn't look for a 会意字 but instead found a similar sound. ka3 and qia3 differs in their 等, the palatalization of qia3 as a result. For people from some regions they are free variants. I would say it's not only phonetic but also somewhat semantic. Something is qia3-ed and creates a thin seam, which is where a card comes in. Or when you forget your keys, maybe you can qia3 you card into the door seam to swipe open the door.
Transliteration of some chemical elements solves this issue by only using the first syllable of the source words.
Being translated both phonetically and semantically at the word level is a very common way to translate a foreign word, e.g. 霓虹、普罗大众、盖世太保、苦力、风信子、图腾、甜不辣、休克、俱乐部、心地、引擎、媒体、霸凌. There are just so many. It creates a phonetic match and its component characters contribute to the meaning of the whole word as the semantic components contribute to the corresponding character.