In English, we often use the word "attempt". Here's 5 random example sentences (off the top of my head):
I'm attempting to learn Chinese.
I attempted to make a joke, but it didn't go well.
I'm attempting to resolve the situation.
He didn't even attempt to explain himself.
She's attempting to convince me that's she's innocent.
One of my iTalki teachers pointed out that he almost never uses the word 试图 (and how I use it all the time), so I'm guessing all of my sentences above are unnatural (or maybe even plain wrong). So now I'm at a loss for how I should go about constructing Chinese sentences for which I would naturally use the verb "attempt" in English.
Question: How can we construct natural Chinese sentences when their English counterpart contains the verb "attempt"?
To be clear, I'm looking for general guidelines on word choice and grammar which I can use when constructing Chinese sentences where I would use the verb "attempt" in English, not merely "here's better translations to the five above sentences".