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For example, how does modern or translated Chinese fiction denote that a character is speaking in standard but heavily accented language, aside from appending an outside-dialogue note? English fiction can simply adjust the spelling of words to indicate this, like Mark Twain having Jim saying, "Does you know ’bout dat chile dat he ’uz gwyne to chop in two?"

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    There are so many local languages in China. Due to that, the vocabulary used when speaking 普通话 may vary. But I don't think you can represent the accent using standard Chinese characters. If the characters in a story are speaking say 吴语,well then speakers of standard 普通话 will not understand the conversation. Very close to here, in 高淳 the locals speak an ancient 南宋 language. Speakers of 普通话 will not understand a word!
    – Pedroski
    Jul 20, 2023 at 22:43
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    The text of the novel simply says, for example, 他说话带有浓重的湖南口音, (He speaks with a strong Hunan accent) Jul 21, 2023 at 2:27
  • @Pedroski There are many Chinese novels written with a heavy dose of local dialect/slang. Note that the speaking language varies from local to local, so if you want to attract Shanghainese readers, you tend to add local speeches in your writing.
    – r13
    Jul 21, 2023 at 2:27
  • @WayneCheah I think the OP is interested in knowing if you write "他说话带有浓重的湖南口音" in Cantonese :)
    – r13
    Jul 21, 2023 at 3:22
  • Since OP says "how does modern or translated Chinese fiction denote that a character is speaking in standard but heavily accented language", believe we are talking about "accent" only, (and whether there are specific symbolic notations used to indicate such incidences in novels), and not about any incidental usage of dialect? Jul 21, 2023 at 3:42

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One way is to write their sentences using incorrect characters that present their pronunciation as well as putting the correct characters in parentheses to present their meaning.

Example: "他一口鸟哈气 (咬下去)."

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