So,I've recently seen the term 以及 used a number of times in written text. For example, in a short story by 叮咛 I read " 这位总统为国家、政府以及人民贡献了所有的力量,人们很尊敬他。". Another chinese stack exchange answer asked about the difference between it, 和, and 与 What is the difference in use between 以及, 和 and 与? - but, I‘m wasn't entirely satisfied by the answer. One said that 以及 only connects phrases (but that doesn't seem true in the above example). And if it is true, how is it different from say "还有“ ?


  • they are interchangable in most scenarios. 以及 / 与 / 和 connect nouns / things only, cannot be used as separator of statements. 还有 can be used as a break of 2 statements. when 以及 / 与 / 和 used, only “、” used (not comma or dot/period). Commented Sep 8, 2017 at 5:46

2 Answers 2


I think the primary difference is formality.

以及 sounds formal. It is rarely used in spoken language but acceptable, okay in casual writing and common in formal writing.

还有 sounds very colloquial. It's fine in casual writing but should be avoided in formal writing.

It's not true to say 以及 only connects phrases. A quick search will give you many good counter-examples. However when it comes to connecting phrases, 以及 does a better job than the other choices. That's exactly where people would use it in colloquial language - connecting short words with 以及 sounds too formal but connecting long words or phrases sounds okay.

  • it seems worth mentioning that以及 is (very!)often shortened to 及。For joining nouns,pronouns or nominal phrases 跟 (spoken language)and 同(like 与,及 written)are also available,since "connecting phrases" has been mentioned,why not also 并且 ,而,而且 。
    – user6065
    Commented Sep 14, 2014 at 21:38

还有 sometimes (not always) gives the listener an impression, or means, that you forgot to mention something before and suddenly you remembered it, or that you don't think those are important. But in most situations, it's just a matter of formality.

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