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Original Question

Although 通过 is the goto expression for passage through or across a space in informal, spoken Mandarin, there are specific alternatives used in more formal, spoken Mandarin as well as in writing. This question serves to provide the community with a comprehensive list. EDIT: As "comprehensive list" questions are frowned upon on the StackExchange network, this question's purpose shall be to illustrate the classes of *过 verbs.

Examples

通过 to go through something in a general or abstract sense
经过 to go past something; EDIT: or to pass something
透过 through, via, or by way of something
穿过 to go through a structure such as a tunnel or hallway
Consider the sense of piercing or penetration that comes from 穿

What additional situation-specific alternatives to 通过 exist? EDIT: What classes of *过 verbs exist?

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    通过 is absolutely formal.Both of these have specific contexts.There are lots of words can be used with 过 to express "through something".like 闪过,盖过,突过,铺过,折过。 – wolfrevo Sep 22 '14 at 9:14
  • 经过 to go *pass something – Pete C. Sep 22 '14 at 11:37
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    @PeteC. OP is correct, it should be "to go past something" (you can check out english.stackexchange.com/a/51341) but it is "to pass something" here's something to confuse everyone: I went past my friend's store today. I passed (by) my friend's store today. Did you go past my friend's store too? – Ming Sep 23 '14 at 0:21
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    @Ming OK my bad :) – Pete C. Sep 23 '14 at 14:02
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    @PeteC. no worries, native English speakers get that mixed up too, it's a common problem :) Notice when 'past' is used, it has a verb before it (went, go) but with 'pass/passed', it is being used as a verb itself. Hope that helps :) – Ming Sep 24 '14 at 1:51
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First of all, , by itself, mainly has two meanings:

  1. to pass (as a verb), e.g.: 过江(to pass a river)
  2. mistake (as a noun), e.g.: 大过(a serious mistake)

I guess in this question you are more interested in the first one and will share my two cents on that.

I can see two dimensions for classifying the *过 words of the sort that you mentioned:

  • How to pass what is to be passed

    It depends on the meaning of the *:

    1. through it: 通过, 穿过, 透过 etc.

    2. outside of it and without (or at least not emphasizing) touching it: 经过, 越过, 超过 etc.

    3. outside of it and touching (or making one feel that it almost touched) it: 扫过, 擦过, 拂过 etc.

  • How abstractable the word is

    (Let's ignore literary innovations for this case)

    1. the great majority of the words are mostly restricted to their space-related literal meaning: 穿过, 越过, 超过, 扫过, 擦过, 拂过 etc.

    2. a few of them can be extended to the time dimension (to pass a period or an event): 经过, 度过 (note: in modern Chinese, 度过 can only mean to pass a period or an event, its space-related counterpart is 渡过)

    3. some other few of them can be abstracted to mean by means of: 通过, or to look through something (to observe): 透过 as in 透过现象看本质 (to look through the phenomena to observe the essence)

After finishing writing the stuff above it suddenly occurred to me that there's another usage of that's also relevant:

adj. + : to be more adj. than

e.g.: 好过 (to be better than), 热过 (to be hotter than), etc.

You may deem them as being abstracted by nature.

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2 alternatives in an abstract sense: iciba: 以(介):例句:他~自学完成了大学全部课程,

征求(动):(有关的人或组织的同意或核准):这问题要~群众,才能做出决定。

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