Questions tagged [classical-chinese]

Classical Chinese (古文, Pinyin: gǔ wén, "ancient text") is the language of the classic literature from the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. The term is also used for Literary Chinese (文言文 wényán wén, "text of written language"), a traditional style of written Chinese modelled on the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese.

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102 views

What does 大出天下 mean?

It is found in an exhibition of Qin Dynasty held in Xi'an city. The exact words are 秦国35代国君发奋图强,做好了“大出天下”的准备。I have checked the words online for the meaning, but finding no answer.But roughly I think ...
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Parsing this text from Mencius

https://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&id=12913&remap=gb#s10096477 朝秦楚,莅中国而抚四夷也 As per the translation, it seems like 秦楚 are doing the 朝'ing and the 中国 are doing the 莅'ing, so why do these ...
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How to parse 轉所依識?

From the Lankavatara Sutra: sūkṣmamabhivijñānaparāvṛttikuśalānāṃ Bodhiruci: 能轉一切微細識 Śikṣānanda: 能以妙慧轉所依識 Suzuki: to cause a revulsion in the depth of the mind fittingly by means of an exquisite ...
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Retention of 其 as a modal particle in modern Chinese

There is a recent Chinese Stack Exchange question on the significance of 其 in 尤其, given the meaning of the word is largely contributed by 尤. I am quite confident that some of the answers in the thread ...
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Can someone explain 衣锦尚炯 character by character?

Can someone explain 衣锦尚炯 character by character? I tried wiktionary but to no avail 😰 This is supposed to mean "She covered her brocade gown with a plain robe." Source: http://www.acmuller....
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What does 苦 mean here?

初,安肅州苦徐水之害,訴於大司農司,大司農司欲奪水故道,導水使東。東則清苑境也,地勢不利,果導之,則清苑被其害,而水亦必反故道為災。 from: https://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&chapter=415731&remap=gb My translation thus far: At first, Ansu City (???) some sort ...
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What is the evidence that “Ospreys” are the birds in the first poem in the Shijing?

Legge used "Ospreys" to name the first poem in the Shijing. Karlgren often cites it that way, but his own translation leaves it as "ts'u - kiu  bird." (Book of Odes, Museum of Far ...
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How can 盼 refer to black and white?

Analect 3.8 quotes from the Book of Songs, 碩人 - Shuo Ren which is Airs of Wei 57 in Waley's version.   『巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮。』 But the last 5 characters do not occur in the Book of Songs as we have it. ...
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141 views

Ancient meaning of the the character 思

The Analect 2.2 quotes from the Book of Odes, and Arthur Waley claims there is a difference between how Confucius there reads the character 思 (sī, think) and how it was used in the Ode.  Waley claims ...
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How do I analyze “惟意所欲適” and “惟所欲為”?

"惟意所欲適" is a phrase from the Chinese poem 《有馬示徐無黨》: 惟意所欲適,九州可周尋。 I assume that "所欲適" is "所-phrase" and "意" is the subject, then where is the predicate? ...
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What is the meaning of the passage ”天下失道,而後仁義生焉……“?

I came across this passage: 天下失道,而後仁義生焉。國家不治,而後孝子生焉。民爭不分,而後慈惠生焉。道逆時反,而 後權謀生焉。 To translate, I think it would be "When all have lost their way, benevolence shall follow thereof. When the kingdom ...
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How do you write, “one who does good” in Classical Chinese?

This is a practice from Rouzer Paul's book. It says, PRACTICE: Put the following into literary Chinese: One who does good leads the heart (away) from disaster. I think the predicate is ... 導心於禍, ...
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What does “相兼岂” mean in this sentence from a Taiji Quan manual?

The following sentence is from a short passage about "体用“ (utilizing/controlling the body) in the context of the 13 Forms of Taiji Quan: "体用相兼岂有他浩然气能行乎手。掤捋按採挒肘靠進退顾盼定." My current ...
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Textual Examples of Honorifics used (contemporary/historical) [closed]

Could anyone recommend some texts or videos where Chinese honorifics are used? I have a list of types of Chinese honorifics but not any textual examples.
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Are there published adaptations of the Analects in Modern Mandarin?

Bilingual (English/Chinese) editions of the Analects seem to be set using standard, Modern Mandarin fonts. And some of the analects are pretty easy to read with a Modern Mandarin background -- with a ...
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According to the official rules of pinyin, should 道德经 be transcribed with or without spaces between the individual syllables?

While reading the Wikipedia article about the 道德经 / 道德經, I noticed how inconsistent it is in its pinyin transcription of that book title. Here are the transliterations found in the article (the link ...
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What means Nanfu? (Characters identified: 阿難)

A friend of mine bought that stone a while ago With the help of a friend, we were about to determine that the words in small seal script means (from left to right) 難 (difficult) and 阜 (plentiful). ...
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“以 V 之” as a post-nominal modifier in Classical Chinese

In English, we can say "He bought something to eat," where "to eat" functions like an adjective to "something." I'm wondering whether in Classical Chinese, "以 V 之&...
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meaning of 從 in 必操几杖以從之

In the following sentence, what does 從 mean? What is the implicit subject of 從之? 謀於長者,必操几杖以從之。 I'd appreciate your help.
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“食人” in Classical Chinese of the 先秦 period

I'd like to know whether "食人" is used in Classical Chinese of the 先秦 period. I am not looking for "食人肉."
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In classical Chinese, does 從 always imply the follower is lower in rank?

When 從 in Classical Chinese means "to follow", literally as in "John followed Peter to the park," does the subject (the follower) necessarily refer to someone who is lower in rank ...
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What does this phrase outside Yue Fei Temple mean? (Characters identified: 乾坤正氣)

Another phrase as 岳王廟 that I can't make out, this one outside the main courtyard. I can only make out the last two characters: 正氣. I found this image at kknews.
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What is the meaning of 元亨利贞 in the I-Ching?

Probably the most cryptic lines of the 周易 Book of Changes, it reads: 元亨利贞 yuan2 heng1 li4 zhen1 This is the Judgement to the very first hexagram, 乾卦 The Creative. The same characters also appear ...
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In 则无迟重之虞所谓顶头悬也, does 顶头悬 translate to “Incoming Danger”?

I stumbled across this word in an old Tai Ji Quan text, in the following context: 则无迟重之虞所谓顶头悬也。 I translated the main part of this sentence as "Don't be paralyzed by fear, which is referred to as....
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word meaning of 回也其庶乎 in Classical Chinese

Could someone explain the meaning of every character after "也" in "回也其庶乎"? I'd appreciate your help.
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What is the original quote of “To be calm is the highest achievement of the self"?

This is allegedly a "Zen proverb": “To be calm is the highest achievement of the self” I tried to look for it by searching on Google, but I could not find the original. What is the original text ...
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How to rhyme (押韻) when translating poetry?

I found the following traslation of Psalm 1:3-4 of the Bible amazingly elegant: 譬彼林木、植於溪旁、隨時結果、其葉青蒼、百事允臧、維彼惡者、猶之粃糠、爲風飄揚。 English (KJV): And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of ...
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What is the equivalent in Chinese for निताइ (Sanskrit)?

The निताइ Sanskrit Shape (English: Nitaai) is used to practice visualization based meditation with origins in ancient India. Can someone kindly share the Chinese equivalent to be able to write Nitaai ...
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Using 莫 in Song dynasty Chinese

There is this passage in 语类, where the question of 天地之心 is discussed: 所以明道云:‘天地之常,以其心普万物而无心;圣人之常,以其情顺万事而无情。’说得最好。”问:“普万物,莫是以心周遍而无私否?”曰:“天地以此心普及万物,人得之遂为人之心,物得之遂为物之心,草木禽兽接著遂为草木禽兽之心,只是一个天地之心尔。 I ...
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Scribal convention versus scribal error

Brian van Norden's book Classical Chinese for Everyone says  We have learned from ancient manuscripts discovered in excavated tombs that it was once extremely common for scribes to substitute ...
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Why there is "不” in “太极不是未有天地之先有个浑成之物,是天地万物之理总名否?”

There is this sentence from the opening of the fist chapterof 语类 by Zhu Xi: 太极不是未有天地之先有个浑成之物,是天地万物之理总名否? Baihua version seems to treat the "不是" part as if it ment "是不是" So the sentence would mean ...
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How to identify 使動用法 in Classical Chinese?

How do you identify phrases using 使動用法 in Classical Chinese? Take this excerpt for example (Baidu article here): 然以其鄉之未嘗有也,舟載以歸而誇諸人。(明·方孝孺《遜志齋集》) My initial interpretation of 誇諸人 was 誇贊衆人 (...
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What exactly is an ancient Tang dynasty 壺?

Note: I have now asked this question on the History Stack Exchange also. There are at least 33 types of ancient sacrificial, wine, food and water ritual bronze vessels of ancient China, none of which ...
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219 views

What did Eastern Han Chinese sound like?

As I was improving an answer to this question in the History SE, I discovered that the prestige Luoyang dialect of the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms period didn't actually fall under Old Chinese but ...
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What does “格” mean in “爾國臨格”?

Matthew 6:10 of the Bible is translated as the following in the Delegates Version: 爾國臨格、爾旨得成、在地若天、 The context was Jesus was teaching how to pray and gave an example of a prayer. I fail to ...
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A Scroll which appears to be from 2004 signed 包德和

包德和 Bāo dé hé Longevity Scroll Which I think reads something like '50 Things to buy for an Emperor' Unfortunately I am still learning Chinese characters. Who is the Caligraphy Writer?
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How would I translate “与君知”

Google translate his been giving me straight pinyin as a translation, and pleco doesn't have what I'm looking for. I got the definitions of each individual character, but I'm not sure how to put them ...
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Are there online resourses that automatically translates English to classical Chinese? [closed]

Google translate supports traditional Chinese and simplified Chinese but not classical Chinese. On the other hand, classical Chinese is one of the supported languages of Wikipedia. Are there online ...
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Help with Zen Painting translation?

Can anyone help with translating this? I think I see characters for Buddha, Chan Zen and Insight or Seeing Clearly?
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將以求吾所大欲也 meaning of 將

What meaning of 將 applies? Origin In 孟子there is a sentence where he describes various failings to the king (such as war preparations) and goes on to ask, whether his majesty delights in such. And then ...
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131 views

Word count in Classical Chinese vs English

Apologies if the title isn't clear, I'm not sure how to express this. I'm trying to establish roughly how many words a Classical Chinese text results in, once translated into English. Classical ...
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What were the tools that Chinese teachers could use in China before the introduction of Zhuyin and Pinyn

I am interested in any answer to that question. I already found a few elements in the older question How were Chinese characters taught to Chinese children before the introduction of pinyin? I have ...
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Is there a proverb that means “the squeaky wheel gets the grease”?

Is there a Chinese (Mandarin or Classical Chinese) proverb equivalent to the American proverb "the squeaky wheel gets the grease"? I looked it up in the Cambridge English-Traditional Chinese ...
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What is the usage of 子 in 「修我戈矛,与子同仇」?

This particular phrase comes from《诗经·秦风·无衣》 Full: 岂曰无衣?与子同袍。王于兴师,修我戈矛。与子同仇!
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When did the meaning of shi 是 shift from »this« (此) to being a copula (»be«)?

I know this question is somewhat unclear since the word shi 是 never only meant this, but carries (and has done so for a long time) several meanings. The Gu Hanyu da cidian (via Pleco) lists some of ...
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What does “明微推远,憭若蓍蔡” mean?

I got an answer from the internet but cannot make too much out of it. My biggest issue is 蓍蔡. A search reveals this to mean "a person of high moral standing" or some sort of big turtle. So I am not ...
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Is Classical Chinese the shortest language?

Generally speaking, when a lengthy document or a book is translated into different languages, will the classical Chinese be the shortest translation? To put in another way, if the same book is ...
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How would a person start translating classical stories from the Han dynasty?

Stories like both Confucius's Analects and Ying Shao's Fengsu Tonyi seem to use the characters in different ways than I've encountered so far. As an example, I'm currently working on translating a ...
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358 views

What is the character for romantic love in classical Chinese?

In Mandarin, 愛 means romantic love. However, New Practical Primer of Literary Chinese by Paul Rouzer has this to say about its use in literary Chinese: This character [愛] usually does not imply "...
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How do I analyze “是其于主也至忠矣”?

I'd like to know how to analyze "是其于主也至忠矣" word for word. 公行之计,是其于主也至忠矣, I would appreciate your help!