Questions tagged [middle-chinese]

Middle Chinese (simplified Chinese: 中古汉语; traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; pinyin: zhōnggǔ Hànyǔ), formerly known as Ancient Chinese, is the historical Chinese dialect recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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What does 流通 mean as a metaphor for Nirvāṇa?

In the 890th sūtra of the Saṃyuktāgama, at the end of the sūtra, the text transmits a number of metaphors, such as "the deathless" (不死) and "the island" (洲渚). One of these terms is ...
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Hakka (Sixian dialect) issue: some characters with a rising tone (上聲)

I found that most of the characters that used to have a sonorant initial and a rising tone in Middle Chinese are pronounced in either rising tone or dark level tone(陰平) in modern Hakka language: Dark ...
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Number of phonemic vowels in Middle Chinese

How many phonemic vowels are there in Middle Chinese? I'm interested in this question because Shanghainese has 16 phonological vowel/12 phonemic vowels, and was wondering if it had innovated more ...
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Does 䁤=香季切 and 侐=火季切 being separate 小韻s in 廣韻 imply anything?

Link Is it something related to 重紐? If not, how can I interpret this?
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Why are 端母 and 知母 considered as distinct initials in Early Middle Chinese even though they share same 上字's such as 都 or 丁, while 幫母 and 非母 are not?

There are some examples such as 樁=都江, where the initial of the original character is 知母 (in modern classification) while the one of it's upper character is 端母. Meanwhile, Chen Li considered the ...
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What rhyme groups had "light" labial initials (輕唇音) such as 非 in the Yunjing (韻鏡)?

This page on "ChinaKnowledge" as well as Pulleyblank's Middle Chinese (published 1984, p.86) say that such rhymes were placed in grade 3 hekou (合口三等) in the standard rhyme tables. However ...
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How did Middle Chinese "hæwk" evolve into Mandarin "xué"?

So I was wondering why the on'yomi reading of Japanese 学 was "gaku" and the Korean reading of 學 was "hak", since I knew that in Mandarin, 学 was "xué", which is radically ...
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What is the equivalent in Chinese for निताइ (Sanskrit)?

The निताइ Sanskrit Shape (English: Nitaai) is used to practice visualization based meditation with origins in ancient India. Can someone kindly share the Chinese equivalent to be able to write Nitaai ...
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What did Eastern Han Chinese sound like?

As I was improving an answer to this question in the History SE, I discovered that the prestige Luoyang dialect of the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms period didn't actually fall under Old Chinese but ...
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Usage of 何 in Buddhist Hybrid Chinese

This is from T263, the Lotus Sūtra, eight groups of 4 characters: 如來所詔 常以知時 為其眾生 而行智慧 || 以何方便 而受道法 何因令獲 從佛經教 Does 何, particularly in 以何方便, mean that there is a question being asked here? Or is it ...
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What is the function of 所 in 聽吾所說心中所以?

What is the function of 所 in these two positions here 聽吾所說心中所以? Is this indicating a passive construction?
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"心中" as "in mind"?

I am looking at a definition for 心中 that reads: "noun: in mind". To me, the English phrase "in mind", I don't really think of it as a noun, what does it mean to be a noun that means "in mind", does ...
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This string of characters: 如力士屈申臂頃

I'm looking through a text (SA 593, Buddhist scripture) and I encountered an absolutely puzzling string of characters: 作是念已,如力士屈申臂頃,於兜率天沒,現於佛前,稽首佛足 This is my best attempt (I am a nonprofessional ...
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Is Cantonese a better choice in looking for characters in rime dictionary (韻書)?

I ask this question, and provide my opinion as an answer, to reply to the comment of another tread in stack exchange: Pronunciation of Tang Dynasty Poetry The rationale is that it is difficult to ...
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The interpretation of a sentence in the Qieyun (切韵) preface

The Qieyun is a rhyme book written by the scholar Lu Fayan 陆法言 in 601 CE, during the Sui dynasty. In my degree thesis I'm trying to analyse some aspects of this particular work. Recently, I managed ...
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How is 古代汉语 defined?

According to Hanyu Wailaici Cidian (Dictionary of Chinese Loanwords), bóshì (博士) with the modern sense "doctor" is derived from the Japanese hakushi, which in turn is of "Ancient Chinese" (古代汉语) ...
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Were 蒸 and 祯 homonyms?

Wu Dalang, a character in Water Margin, which takes place during the Song dynasty, sold steamed buns called "炊饼". These buns were originally called 蒸饼: 凡以面為食具者,皆謂之餅,故火燒而食者呼為燒餅,水淪而食者呼為湯餅,...
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Did ancient Chinese have tones (声调)?

This question has puzzled me since I have no training in ancient Chinese and ancient phonetics. What is puzzling me are the following facts: The tones in different regions are quite different. If ...
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Dissimilation of bilabial finals following Middle Chinese (法, 品, 凡)

Middle Chinese syllables with the shape CVP where C is a bilabial stop and P is a bilabial underwent dissimilation to CVF, where F = P[-labial]. For instance, Baxter's reconstruction of 法 is *pjop, 品 ...
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Tone of 竟 and 境 in Mandarin and Cantonese

竟 and 境 are both read ging2 in Cantonese, which usually corresponds to a third tone syllable in Mandarin (as is the case for 警, which is ging2 in Cantonese and jing3 in Mandarin). However, both of ...
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8 votes
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The development of rhotic vowels in Mandarin

Schuessler's reconstruction of the Old Chinese reading of 二 is *ńźi. It seems there is a correspondence between OC syllables beginning in *ń or *ńź and Mandarin syllables romanised as er. However, I'...
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