的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...
The Phonology of Standard Chinese by San Duanmu (端木三) has an entire chapter devoted to this topic (The Word Length Problem):
In this section I review six previous approaches to the disyllabic phenomenon in Chinese. For convenience, I call them (a) the homophone-avoidance approach, (b) the speech-tempo approach, (c) the grammatical approach, (d) the rhythm ...
How to look up an entry in 《說文通訓定聲》?
從內容順序來看，作者 朱駿聲 是假設讀者已熟悉字的音韻。
The contents of common Chinese dictionaries are classified and arranged according to the shapes of radicals.
《說文通訓定聲》 is arranged in accordance with phonology.
Judging from the order of contents, the ...
行 here means "to do" or "to perform".
行：實行；實踐 to do; to perform; to practice
有：還有 still have
餘：多餘的 superfluous; surplus; excess
力：能力 ability; capability
After doing these and still having surplus capability,
After one can perform the above things, and has enough time and ability, one should study and learn some knowledge.
"The above ...
There are people studying this.
Classical Chinese Character Frequency List
Modern Chinese Character Frequency List
Now do your own comparisons because I'm lazy.
Update -- I feel less lazy today so I'll give it a shot.
For obvious purposes, let't take the first 1000 characters in the classical list and see where they go in the trend. I can't do scripts ...
Some disagreements with above.
Though '七曜' did exist in Chinese philosophy and literature from the very beginning, it is almost certain that the practice of using '七曜' to notate the seven days of a week came from the western world via India around the Tang Dynasty.
In spite of this, it was not until the dawn of the Chinese dynasties that Chinese people ...
This is a 隸書 form of 景. According to the references cited in the 教育部異體字字典, it occurs on steles from the Tang dynasty.
Sometimes these variations are done for ease of cutting, or because certain forms tend to break or wear away very easily; I don't know if this is the case here. Another form that also seems to appear a lot is with two 日, a 日 on top and a ...
The buckwheat(?) can grow well in the snow because of its inherent ability.
A gentleman can live well in the predicaments, then people can see his inner integrity.
If not, why not?
There is no exact one-word equivalent of the concept of "freedom" in ancient Chinese, just as there are no exact one-word equivalent of 仁， 理， 道, etc. in Latin, Greek or any Western languages. That's not surprising: it is what makes our world an interesting world of differences.
It doesn't mean ancient Chinese did not have or need or seek ...
Question: 古文中哪个字有自由不受约束的意思啊？ (Gǔwén zhōng nǎge zì yǒu zìyóu bu shòu yuēshù de yìsi a) - Which word in Ancient Chinese means Free and/or Unfettered?
Source: Bai Du
It appears there aren't single words, in modern and ancient Chinese, that have a denotative meaning of "Freedom". There are however, connotative words that can mean "free" or "to set free" in ...
Here's a good English definition and explanation with an example sentence to get you started:
A Students Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese
2 negative particle of the perfective: had not, have not, will have not; similar to 末 mò and often accompanied by perfective-final 矣 yǐ; mostly found in Zuozhuan 左傳 and Guoyu 國語, later mainly for archaic ...
It's an honorific, meaning "illustrious" or "enlightened general", and as such is not specific to Liu Bei.
For example, in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, Pei Song's annotations cite a passage where Huangfu Li (皇甫酈) addresses Li Jue (李傕) as 明將軍:
In recent times, you yourself, illustrious general, saw with your own eyes ...
The first thing to point out is that「吾」(Baxter-Sagart: /*ŋˤa/) and「我」(Baxter-Sagart: /*ŋˤajʔ/) are cognate. They mean exactly the same thing, and were interchangeable to a very large degree; as the comment pointed out, the use of one over the other is due to either personal preference, emulation of ancient texts, or to avoid repetition.
Specifically in the ...
This article suggests that the original text was 道可道，非恒道. That is, 恒 not 常 (meaning 永恒 = eternal, unchanging).
This dictionary definition for 常 also includes the meaning "长久，经久不变" (and gives the example 常量, with an alternate form 恒量).
Here "乃" means "be". This sentence means "This area is for old posts, and these posts are read-only."
Next time, if you find "此乃" these two characters together or a noun+乃 together, "乃" properly means "be". For example:
This is my book.
Consciousness is an emergent property of the brain.
The equivalent of 子 for women is also 子.
Examples from Old Chinese texts:
The Works of Mencius: "Breaking into your landlord's house and harass the virgin girl gets you a wife; refrain from harassing and you don't get a wife. Does that mean you would do it?"
The following is an excerpt from wikipedia, Classical Chinese Grammar:
Further information: Classical Chinese lexicon
Classical Chinese is distinguished from written vernacular Chinese in
its style, which appears extremely concise and compact to modern
Chinese speakers, and to some extent in the use of different lexical
If you are looking for an exact English translation, the answer is that there isn't one.
It is a tradition in Chinese culture. When you are talking about/to other people, you should butter him/her up by exaggerating his/her achievements, wealth, position and etc. And do the opposite thing when talking about yourself. It's all about being polite (when ...
足矣 means (lucky) enough.
So the whole sentence means:
knowing a person who understand you (soul mate? I think) in one's life is enough.
Implicit meaning: many people won't have even one soul mate all his/her life. When you have one, you are lucky enough. So please appreciate it and don't ask for more.
I'm afraid different people may use these terms in slightly different ways. But the way I understand it,
standard form 標準體 is one of several ways of writing a character, chosen as standard in a particular place and time (there are different standards: standard mainland forms, standard Taiwanese forms, standard Hong Kong forms, standard Kangxi forms, etc.),
the post card is a replication of a painting, which is in the palace museum (故宫博物院). imo, the quality is, unacceptable. here's a better image of the painting:
about the text, traditionally, one read from top to bottom, right to left. so, the rightest text are:
it was ...
EDIT: I didn't realize that there were typos in the quotation:
The original one should be 臣 以臣弑君、可謂仁乎 呼
I suppose 臣以弑君 might be an uncommon variant, but it is still grammatical.
臣以弑君 = 以臣弑君 killing his lord as a vassal.
以 is used as a preposition “as” but the word order is reversed, making it looks like a post-position. The sentence structure is ...
The biggest obstacle is the script; although simple characters are still understandable, the evolution of scripts from seal script (the closest script to modern ones during Confucius's time) involved drastic changes in the appearance of characters. Those unfamiliar with the changes would have a lot of trouble recognising the characters. The shift to ...
There are two kinds of morphology: inflectional and derivational. The first is like English –ed or –s, or case endings in languages like German or Latin. Adding an inflectional morpheme doesn’t make a new word, but it changes the grammatical function.
Derivational morphology, on the other hand, does make a new word. It might be a different part of speech,...