等一下 is fine, but if you want shorter answers, there are other options:
等等：pretty much the same as 等一下
馬上：means immediately, will be there in a moment
These are the two word answers I can think of right now.
It usually depends on the situation. If it was a company telling me about a product I might be interested in, and I hear them out, I usually end with 谢谢,我再考虑考虑
if it's one of my my friends, I usually make an excuse such as have to go now, have to sleep, have to eat etc... and add something like 我们哪天接着聊吧, or 回头见
If talking to my parents, I usually say 就这件事, ...
If the sentence is 她是笨蛋学生 or 她是笨学生, it would mean She is a fool student, but since there is a 的 in between, 笨蛋 is a noun that refers to a person, and not an adjective anymore. So She is the student of a fool makes better sense.
'After' can be expressed with 以后 placed after the clause:
The second sentence can be translated using an 'after', e.g.:
他看到你来以后，他离开了。But it would sound 'more natural' if you dropped it:
@ah_hau's answer has a good generic phrase for the typical English usage (of treating "karma" as some sort of cosmic justice system). It suggests that the woman might have done something evil 30 years ago, and has been suffering misfortune because of it.
But if you want to specify that her misfortune is payback for deeds in a previous life, there's a common ...
哆啦A夢 is just a transcription of ドラえもん|Doraemon, there's no meaning to it.
是我: "It's me."
嚇了你一跳吧?: "Did I scare you?" (or more literally "I must have scared you, right?")
Missed characters are: 嚇, 跳
你是誰? 從哪裡來的?: your translations are fine here.
想幹什麼: "What do you want (to do)?"
Missed characters are: 幹
My best guess would be: 迷恋 (mí liàn). There are some other ways to translate attachment (as an emotional affection, not a physical one), but in many cases this attachment is related to a person, not objects, and those translations would be inadequate.
Probably not a perfect translation, I hope others will improve it.
良好, 令人满意；好。should be translated as good or well without the "be," then it can be used anywhere good or well are used. I never heard it being used as a closing remark, but under some circumstances, such use is possible.
祝你的程序运行良好.--Wish your application runs well.
Your sentence 谢谢您的来电 is technically right to close a conversation. 谢谢您的来电 translates to English is 'thank you for your call'. The caller should end your call, are you sure you pronounced it correctly?
Chinese normally won't use '谢谢您的来电' to end a call. We often use an excuse to close the conversation, for example "I have to go now, call you later".
Just mention a famous person with that surname, e.g.
袁紹 from the Three Kingdoms
袁崇煥, patriot, martyr, and brilliant military commander who was instrumental in repelling the Jurchens for the Ming Dynasty
袁世凱, first president of the Republic of China
So how can I express "You mean ...?" in Mandarin, to ask what they mean?
"你的意思是XXX？" means you are making a guess, and asking for a confirmation
If you don't understand a person's single statement, the simplest way to ask for clarification is "你的意思是...?" (you meant....?) and let that person explain. or you can say "这是什么意思？" (what does it mean?)
If you don'...
You've got it dude 先走 is a great way to express that it's time for you to leave.
If you feel like it's too much you can just say 我走了 without the whole pomp and circumstance.
edit: if you feel it's too mean then you can explain why you've gotta go (我走了，已经很晚了) - but shouldn't be a problem.
This is an incredibly broad question; books can be written on the subject. Because of this and I'm not an expert Chinese language user either, I'll only answer using broad generalisations (and exceptions will apply to everything I write here).
These are the words and phrases commonly used during Chinese New Year:
General well-wishes: as an ...
你是指我會被吊起來，和被火烤嗎？: "Are you saying I will be strung up and roasted with fire?"
Missing character: 被, 起, 被
這些都是小事一樁: "Those are all no big deal."
Missing character: 樁
我會讓你到老死之前都不會遇到大波折: "I'll make sure you meet no major set backs until you die of old age."
Missing character: 讓, 死, 遇, 波
Wrong character: 回 -> 會|会
List your good points.
Meaning instead of outright rejecting this person's offer, you say, "I already have such and such already," you get the picture. Emphasize that you are very well off, no need for gifts and such. So if someone offered a gift to you, you could say, "Thank you, but I have a lot of such and such." And the good ol' "I'm on a diet" works ...
被逮 could be considered as a short version of 被逮住， meaning 被抓住; be caught; For example, 我被老师逮（住）了， 我考试作弊被逮了(I was caught for cheating in the exam), 他被逮了个正着(meaning he was just caught while he was doing something bad).
However, 被逮 usually is not that formal as 被逮捕 or 被捕. It's not a good idea to use it in a serious/formal writing, like in a report.
就那样吧==也就那样吧 in this case, which is a colloquial term, not an idiom.
It means 'just so-so', 'it's just ok', or 'things going just like that'. It conveys her life in Moscow is not that good, or not as good as she/someone was expected.
You can take it as the short of 生活就那样吧。 or 生活也就那样吧。
Referencing famous names is a good idea. But if it still doesn't work, you might have to describe the radicals.
For example, my surname is 张. I was often asked to clarify whether it's 立-早 章 or 弓-长 张, when I told them my surname pronounced as 'zhang'.
I can give the example of very natural translation：
"After eating my candy, I will go there".
"After he saw you were coming, he left".
"After she found the book, she called me".
But, there is difference between After and 后. Chinese will add another word to explain the time accurately, for example , the 就 shows I will ...
重视 - see somthing/somebody as important (neutral).
贴着 / 贴在 - physically attached to a object, usually deliberate.
附着 - physicaly attached to an object, may or may not be deliberate.
执着 - obsessed with something/somebodyz often with negative connotation.
依恋 - emotionally dependent on something/somebody
爱惜 - see something/somebody as important (with affection)