了 is a particle with no actual meanings, but there are three kinds of particles: 状态助词, 语气助词 and 结构助词. 了 is both a 状态助词 and a 语气助词.
When it is used as a 状态助词, it shows the thing the speaker talks about is finished or started but have not ended, and should be after the verb or verb phrase; when it is used as a 语气助词, it is just a sign of statement and must be ...
This dictionary definition addresses the use of 了:
E.g. 小王来信了 / 都四月份了，天还这么冷 / 天快亮了 / 要是不走就见到他了。
Basically, it says this use of 了 is placed at the end of a sentence, introducing a new circumstance or change. The new circumstance can be something already happened, or will happen, or a hypothesis.
了 means 'at present'
So 找到你了 means, as present, I have found you and 我想家了 means, at present, I miss home. When you add 了 after the verb the meaning changes 我去找到了你 means I went to find you, and 我想了家 means I thought about home.
Interestingly you can also say 我找到你啦 where 啦 sounds like 了 but 啦 indicates exclamation. An example is 她们赢啦！ （they won!）Another example ...
我找到你 - "I find you". This sentence lacks clarity on whether the act (find) has happened in the past, now, or is ongoing.
我找到你了 - "I find you now" or "I found you". These two indicate the act is either completed now (the former) or was completed in the past (the latter).
我最喜欢看篮球比赛 = 我最喜欢看篮球比赛了 - As this sentence is a general ...
You shall learn how to detect an omitted phrase in a Chinese sentence, and separate a long sentence into meaningful pieces (like clues of a puzzle). For the two cases:
她是不会来了。Actually, the complete sentence should be 我"想(猜,估計)"她是不会来了。 I think (guess, estimate) she won't come.
如今是什么办法都试过了。 = 如今是 什么办法都试过了。如今是 is a customary phrase similar to English -...
What your quoted explanation means is 是 is used for an assessment. E.g. 她是不会来了 // the speaker estimates that she wouldn't come. Just like to say judging from current situation, she wouldn't come.
Compared with 是...的, 她是不会来的 is more of emphasis. The speaker is more certain that she wouldn't come. The sentence is saying that it's ...
警察 = police
武装警察 (abbreviation: 武警) = armed police
The thing that confuses you is that you do not know the Chinese fact that “armed police” is not listed in police staff. In fact, “armed police” is listed in the military force (army).
The full name of Chinese armed police is 中国人民武装警察部队, literally Chinese People's Armed Police Army, so it is a part of the ...
警察: Police. In China the term 民警 (abbreviation for 人民警察 people's police) is used more often.
武警: Abbreviation for 武装警察 armed police. Although it is "police", actually it is a military unit. The main tasks of 武警 are anti-terrorism, law enforcement, and handling extreme violent crimes.
特警: Similar to 武警, but is a well-equiped police unit that ...
This is the first sentence of the forth chapter of The Three Body Problem:
The first book, luckily enough for you, was translated by Ken Liu. Here is his, published, translation:
4 The Frontiers of Science
Forty-plus years later
Wang Miao thought the four people who came to find him ...
Let me just supplement Tang Ho's perfect answer with two other examples.
但願人長久，千里共嬋娟 from the Song poem 水調歌頭, 蘇軾
which means '(I) just wish him (author's brother) a long life, and that we look at the same beautiful moon despite being thousands of miles apart.'
但得有三餐足夠，為人樂觀好少掛憂 from the Cantonese song 杯酒當歌, 許冠傑
which means 'I just need 3 good meals a day ...
但 means 'but' ; 'only' ; 'just'
只 means 'only'; 'just'
The difference between the two when they are functioning as 'only/just':
但 is more literary/ classical; 只 is more colloquial/ contemporary
只看不買 (only look but not buy) - a normal contemporary sentence
但看不買 - it sounds awkward with a classical term mixed in a contemporary sentence
但說無妨 (It is ...
赞赏 means 'to praise' (v) or 'praise' (n). You can 欣赏 or 佩服 someone in your mind but not showing it outwardly. However, 赞赏 by definition is an outward expression of admiration (you have to say or write it out)
When 欣赏 is used on a non-human object, it refers to 'appreciate' (observe and enjoy)'. e.g. 欣赏歌劇， 欣赏風景
When 欣赏 is used on a human object, it refers ...
欣赏 xin1shang3 — is mainly used with inanimate things.
你过来欣赏一下这个场景 Come admire this scenery
赏 specifically refers to observing something likeable. Zdic:
佩服 pei4fu5 — is mainly used with people, as you correctly say, whom you look up to, or more generally whom you appreciate and praise. It can be used as "admire" someone's ...