The traditional Chinese letter is very complex.It has many honorifics that vary greatly for different receivers.
But today,most people's traditional education is insufficient to write these letter.
For email,people tend to write simply and practicably。
I will give you a example, explanation in the brackets, see if it's useful to you.
this is a email I sent to my client, I think this format is kind of formal
孔经理：(he's a manager, and his family name is Kong, it's impolite to call somebody's name in a formal letter)
此致(this word means "I finish my word here" or "this is the end of this ...
If you are looking for an exact English translation, the answer is that there isn't one.
It is a tradition in Chinese culture. When you are talking about/to other people, you should butter him/her up by exaggerating his/her achievements, wealth, position and etc. And do the opposite thing when talking about yourself. It's all about being polite (when ...
“哀伤” is usually a noun, while “悲伤” and “悲哀” are usually adjective.
“哀伤”, “悲伤” both could mean severe sadness, and are often used in the context that one has lost someone he loved or something he valued.
No words could describe the sorrow of losing his family.
Having lost his family, he looks very sad.
Though “悲哀” could ...
usually, a Chinese won't use 您 to his parents. it's used only for a non-closed friend, a business member for example. Using an appellation with 你 instead. for example:
is better than
except that women is not your mother but your wife's.
BTW, 您 don't have a plural form, turns to 你们 instead.
When addressing the listener's family, a prefix 令 (ling4, which has a meaning of good, lucky) can be used:
令尊, your father
令堂, your mother
令郎, your son
令嫒, your daughter
令兄, your elder brother
令弟, your younger brother
令姊, your elder sister
令妹, your younger sister
Correspondingly, when addressing the speaker's own family, a prefix 家(jia1, which means home, ...
In my considered opinion:
您- you (second person pronoun, formal)
高- high (adj.)
However 就 here comes from 成就 which means achievement. The interrogative turn would thus mean "Where are you achieving (i.e. working and attaining (hopefully!) praise and achievement)". As for the non-interrogative turn I would consider it just a ...
As you mention this is complex and subtle and likely depends on upbringing and which area you come from.
I have heard my wife use 您 when talking to her mother, but not this is not a regular thing. From the conversations I remember, this is usually at times when my wife wants to discuss something difficult with her mother or when she is asking her to look ...
"最近如何" is used by educated people, you will hear which in formal occasions. But if you are in entertaining places or simply walking along a street, then yes, "最近怎樣" will be more frequently heard.
This distinction may resemble the distinction between "How do you do" and "How's it going". Modern young kids seldom use "how do you do" to replace "how's it going"...
I am Chinese. If you asked me “最近如何”? I wouldn't feel it's formal at all.
There could be difference between these two in other contexts, but definitely not here.
Say if you want to write something in letter and want it to be formal. Try “最近可好”?
随信附上 or 附件
Here is a webpage of baidu(an chinese website) zhidao (pinyin, which means know) which explains Encl. in chinese and english.
Hope it is helpful. :)
I don't think that is the case. 悲哀 is perhaps used more often, which gives the feeling that it is less formal.. But if you asked me, I would say they are interchangeable and convey the same feeling.
On the other hand. Some might say they differ in severity. 哀伤 悲伤悲哀 decrease in degree of sadness. But the difference is so subtle and subjective that I don't ...
I think the above answers are right. If you want to be VERY FORMAL in a written letter, you can use ancient expressions. Taiwanese still use them nowadays in formal letters.
Ancient ways to express gratitude in written letter:
The text sounds very official and formal
If the tenant is a company, then it must provide the information of the legal representative
I think 法定(legal) is not needed, since the representative is bonded by a legal ...
Say 你好 (Hello) first
It sounds more formal to state what company you are from before stating your name. "我是 xxx 公司的客服 yyy" or "我是 xxx 公司的客服, 我的名字是 yyy"
Since you are speaking with the customer on the phone, "打过来的" or "给您打电话了" is redundant. Just like you wouldn't need to say "I am talking to you in person" ...
I've received many messages set-up this way. "Thank you for your time" or "Thank you for your consideration" are very English-isms, you're best just to go with the Chinese way to do things.
At first glance, I thought that it's just 高就 which means "promote in work".
But according to your explanation, I wonder if it's a polite question asking "Where do you work?"
Grammatically, 高 means "high(ly)" and 就 means "occupy oneself" or "occupy (a position)".
P.S. Some examples from the first few pages at Google:
I asked him ...
I second what Stan said; I've never heard anyone call their parents by 您.
Usually, if it is a friend, co worker, family member, 你 is usually fine
您 is a respectful/formal way to address elders, guests, people of distinction (addressing a professor).
Keep in mind, in both formal and informal situations, I hardly have heard people speak 您好。 I usually see ...