得 can be used as a complement that helps indicate completion or consequence of the action (preceding verb). Its use is traceable to classical Chinese (see 10th entry here):
By thirteen, an accomplished lute player I had become; In the imperial registry of the first section my name be found. (translation)
You master something if you ...
发生了什么事 more refers to an action/occurance which have/had happened. Finished doing/being smth
我吃了一个苹果 (I ate the apple and now it doesnt exist)
发生什么事了points that the situation is changed.
他现在是一位老师了。he is a teacher now (before, he wasn't a teacher)
我不吃巧克力了。I don't eat chocolate (before, I used to eat, now, situation is changed, I don't eat ...
It is always good practice to look up the etymology of an idiom whenever you are learning one:
Ruan Ji enjoys wine and a good wail; he is also skilled in playing the guqin. Whenever he derives joy (from these), without warning, he forgets his physical form.
Ruan Ji was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove ...
It may read like 轉所依之識 here in Śikṣānanda: 'to transform vijñāna which is the basis'. To me, 所依 sounds like a dummy object (for the transitive 轉) that has a slightly negative connotation, is more generic, and semantically weaker; whereas 識 is specific to the context here. They are however syntactically equivalent.
Technically it should be 識, because there ...
Below is a compilation of Sanskrit, Chinese (Bodhiruci, 菩譯), Chinese (Śikshānanda, 實譯), and English (Suzuki), which I found in Bibliotheca Polyglotta:
to keep themselves properly away from ego-centered notions
I then looked up the Digital Corpus of Sanskrit (DCS) to understand how it was originally phrased in ...
Tl;dr: Your interpreting 息 as 'to cease' is incorrect. 出息 as we know it in modern Chinese is a much derived, figurative meaning.
It is better to parse the word as 沒/出息, i.e. understand 出息 altogether. This is also for the fact that the meaning of 沒 is uncontentious. Also, 息 surely is not a verb meaning 'to cease', because it does not make sense with 出 here. ...
比喻超越他人，獨露頭角 Metaphor to surpass others, to stand alone
出 = 超出 (Exceed); 高出 (higher than)
人 = people/ others
頭 = head (refers to the length of one head -- used here as a measuring unit)
地 = ground
The origin of '出人頭地' was a quote from a famous scholar 歐陽修: '(放他)出一頭地' = '(give way ...
之 was chosen to avoid repeating 的: “每个人都有自己的人生的路，so if you understand 的, you understand 之。
You can often leave out 之 、的：那是人生中(的)一个标记，人生路上的里程碑。
Everyone has their own path in life,
you just need to seize the (right) moment,
(and) strive diligently,
only people who are unafraid of hardships can walk this path
之: marks preceding phrase as modifier of following phrase; it, him her, them; go to
This function of 之 is different from the one in your quoted text.
之 in [Verb + 之] functions the same as a pronoun
Example: "逆我者，殺(之)" = "the ones who against me, kill (them)"
In this sentence, the verb 殺 precedes 之, therefore, 之 functions as the pronoun ...
I think you can see it nicely here:
Some measures adopted in response,
such as export restrictions,
led to (a) strong counter-effect. = have been highly counterproductive.
起到： give rise to
反作用： opposite, counter-effect
In those sentences, it's a modal particle, in which case it expresses a change of state. The page you linked has a link to it.
A change of state doesn't necessarily mean an actual physical change. It could be implied, or it could be a change in one's assumptions.
In your example sentences.
Here the change implied is from a state of being in England ...
If you can number a thing, it is definitely a thing. "一切 = all".
All is a number, thus 我见执着 is a thing.
(if thou) would abandon all self attachment.
If (thou) would thus.
(This) namely is the true devotee path.
(if thou) would break free from other opinions, (if thou) would break free from wrong views.
起 = establish
作用 = effect
起作用 = take effect
反(opposite) --> (opposite of positive = negative)
起反作用 = take opposite (negative) effect --> The opposite result of the intended goal = counterproductive
When your action cause a positive/productive effect, that is 起(正面)作用
When your action cause a negative/ counterproductive, effect, that is 起反面作用 = 起反作用
The meaning lies in 意忘形
Both 意 and 忘 contain 心, the mind
意：音：sound, person speaking + 心 mind = thoughts, ideas
忘：亡：gone + 心 mind = forgotten
形：form, shape, appearance
意忘形: mind forget its form
得：just for tacking this onto other words
她得意忘形, 不要得意忘形, 就会得意忘形
得 = able to
过 = pass
且 = 姑且 = make do with; tentatively
过 = pass
得过且过 literally means 'if you can pass it, pass it.' Meaning stop trying once reached the minimum requirement (not spending more effort on trying to do better)
Example: As long as I don't go hungry, I am fine with only working three days a week would be a 得过且过 attitude because I never ...
The construction 得+V+且+V is a common observation in classical Chinese. In fact, consider another expression, 得饒人處且饒人 (meaning to be explained in point 4.).
We understand 過 generally as 'to pass'. But how should we understand 得⋯⋯且⋯⋯?
得 in classical Chinese can be a preceding modal verb that
expresses ability or possibility.
且 in classical Chinese is an ...
What is the reason for these various locations of 很多?
The position of 很多 just depends on what you wish to talk about.
You can experiment, move 很多 around, see what you get! (Don't worry, nothing will explode!)
You want to say something about 活动:
(There are) many activities.
You want to say something about 很多活动：
Many activities ....
社区的休闲活动很多 is a [topic]+[comment] sentence
[社区的休闲活动] is the [topic]
[很多] is the [comment]
[社区的休闲活动][很多] = Community recreational activities are plenty
"很多社区的休闲活动" = "Many community recreational activities" (it is an incomplete sentence)
政府資助很多社区的休闲活动 = The government subsidizes recreational activities in many communities
It is a [svo]...
没出息. How not ending/ ceasing out become useless?
Look at it the other way around:
有出息：show promise, have promise, should go far
She's got talent and should go far.
So, 没出息：lack of talent, promise or prospects. (Bit like me!!)
連A帶B is not equivalent to A着B.
A着B limits both A and B to verbs, but 連A帶B does not (they can be verbs, nouns, or adjectives).
Part of speech
Many hostels nowadays (lit. 'blind' and) deceive customers for their stay.
With the sword and its ...
verbal particle used to express potentiality or to indicate a result or an extent
'得'(can/ able to) in '聽得到'(can hear) is a [potential particle]. The other potential particle is '不'(cannot/ unable to) as in '聽不到'(cannot hear) -- there are only two potential particles
'得' (to the point of/ result in) in '聽得入神' (listen to the point of being ...