Both sentences are correct, with a slight difference in the parsing.
Starting the day before yesterday, my cell-phone couldn't get onto the internet.
Here, 开始 is part of the time phrase 前天开始.
My cell-phone started to fail to get onto the internet on the day before yesterday.
开始 is part of the verb phrase.
Having said this, I ...
In both of the answers, 挑战 can be seen as the verb.
For this sentence:
...the skeleton of this sentence is 我(subject) 挑战(verb) 手术(object)
For this one:
... the skeleton is the same, but in an inverted order: 手术 我 挑战.
Inverted sentence is a common sentence structure in Chinese, and it's mainly used to emphasize the object, ...
since 挑战 is being used as a noun
No, sorry, it's used as a verb.
In English we would say:
"face (as if in a duel or combat) for the first time".
A vital rule we must always abide to (at least at your level of knowledge, preparing for HSK5) is to use a Chinese monolingual dictionary for the correct meaning/s. Bilingual dictionaries are ...
This structure is called "Nominal Predicate Sentence" (名词谓语句). In this structure a nominal construction or compound is used as predicate. Normally, it is not used a simple noun. For example, we'd not say (sentences marked with * are wrong):
(All examples are taken from 《现代汉语八百词》，吕叔湘主编).
Nominal constructions or compounds are ...
Your translation is precise.
In my opinion, 了 here emphasises that the affair 职务没了 HAS occurred. Consider the following variation.
I would say that's also OK.
This is also good. “没有职务了” sounds like a speech from 王建男, so I prefer to use a 破折号（——）.
Last but not least, I agree with Romanazzi that 了 can ...
You should always consider the context in which something is said. Taking short phrases on their own and trying to understand them is never good. Everything becomes clear in context.
I can't find any examples of "会吃饭". I can find "能吃":
You will know the time indicated ...
The Chinese language often does not have a clear cut on "active" and "passive" sentences, thus 覆盖着 can either mean " cover" or "covered". its meaning and proper uses in a sentence depend on the logical sense of the primary and secondary subjects, and modifiers are often required for the passive sentence to be clear, or ...
You shall learn how to detect an omitted phrase in a Chinese sentence, and separate a long sentence into meaningful pieces (like clues of a puzzle). For the two cases:
她是不会来了。Actually, the complete sentence should be 我"想(猜,估計)"她是不会来了。 I think (guess, estimate) she won't come.
如今是什么办法都试过了。 = 如今是 什么办法都试过了。如今是 is a customary phrase similar to English -...
What your quoted explanation means is 是 is used for an assessment. E.g. 她是不会来了 // the speaker estimates that she wouldn't come. Just like to say judging from current situation, she wouldn't come.
Compared with 是...的, 她是不会来的 is more of emphasis. The speaker is more certain that she wouldn't come. The sentence is saying that it's ...
Here is my takes:
"历来植物生长离不开阳光，而动物又靠植物维持生命，所以没有阳光，就没有万物" - 真理 (a tested rule that is considered the truth).
"万物生长靠太阳" - 定义 (a definition).
The sunlight maintaining and extend the life of creatures is considered the "norm"; the creatures can't live without sunlight is the "standard phenomenon" and the sunlight is the &...
了 means 'at present'
So 找到你了 means, as present, I have found you and 我想家了 means, at present, I miss home. When you add 了 after the verb the meaning changes 我去找到了你 means I went to find you, and 我想了家 means I thought about home.
Interestingly you can also say 我找到你啦 where 啦 sounds like 了 but 啦 indicates exclamation. An example is 她们赢啦！ （they won!）Another example ...
我找到你 - "I find you". This sentence lacks clarity on whether the act (find) has happened in the past, now, or is ongoing.
我找到你了 - "I find you now" or "I found you". These two indicate the act is either completed now (the former) or was completed in the past (the latter).
我最喜欢看篮球比赛 = 我最喜欢看篮球比赛了 - As this sentence is a general ...
There isn't a nice way to address this. We have to rely on context, tone, logic and etc. to decide the meaning.
Another typical example of this phenomenon is China always win game. E.g. 中国队大胜美国队(China win), 中国队大败美国队(China win).
A covered B = [subject + verb + object]
雪覆盖着山 = snow covered the mountain (the subject snow applies an action to the object mountain)
A cover (by) B = [topic + comment]
山(topic) = the mountain
覆盖着雪 (comment) = is covered by snow
山覆盖着雪 = the mountain is covered by snow (the comment describes the topic)
Here is the text ...癌症，也就是恶性肿瘤
The key word here is 恶性 malicious, malignant. Not all tumors are malicious; some are benign 良性. Benign tumors are not cancerous.
Answer D is not correct because it says "Cancer is tumors."
肿瘤 (tumors) can be 良性(benign) or 恶性 (malignant)
良性肿瘤(benign tumors) and 恶性肿瘤 (malignant tumors) are not the same
恶性肿瘤 is a cancerous tumor but 癌症 (cancer) doesn't always come in the form of tumor
Cancerous tumors may also be called malignant tumors. Many cancers form solid tumors, but cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not. Benign ...
Is there an underlying principle I can use to learn this
Yes, and I guess it's not what you want to hear, sorry. In English, as well as in Italian, my language, we have to position what we say in time by choosing the correct conjugation of verbs. As @Pedroski correctly said, that is not the case with Chinese. No tenses in Chinese.
Anyway, about time, I ...
去 means "go", "to go", or "going". In a sense, the action "go" (去) happens in the future because you need to start from or stand on a reference point then "go" (去) to somewhere.
会 usually means "can" and "know how to".
我会吃饭 - I "know how to" (会) eat. (Simple present tense)
我去吃饭 - ...
As @dan said in the comment, here 没 is not the negation of 了, but of the verb 有.
we don't use 了 in conjunction with 没
That is true (with only a few exceptions) if the structure of the sentence is 没(有)+Verb. But in our case, 有 is the verb and the structure is Verb+Noun.
The first sentence can be considered as an omission of verb 是.
In some grammar books, they take it as 名词性谓语句(noun as predicate). E. g. 今天星期四. 明天晴天。这张桌子四条腿。
Note that Chinese sentences don't have to have a verb as predicate.
The difference between 明天是星期六 and 明天星期六:
明天是星期六 (tomorrow is Saturday) is a complete sentence with 是 as the verb
明天星期六 (tomorrow Saturday) has no verb. It is a phrase made up of a noun and its relative noun. The noun is 明天, and 星期六 is the relative noun that provides additional information on it.
我明天不用上學 is a complete sentence
明天(星期六)不用上學 - the ...
unfortunately some of the Chinese sentences don't need verb.
In general when you make sentence with adjective and predicate; adjective plays as a verb.
some specific sentences don't need a verb, like date related sentences.
the other words will play as a verb.
for example 明天星期六
you will get the meaning without 是. 是 is usually used ...
since 挑战 is being used as a noun
You are thinking of 第一次挑战 as "My first challenge", but 挑战 is still a verb in the following sentences
[SVO sentence] 我第一次(First time I) 挑战 (challenge) 这么高难度的手术。 (such a difficult operation)
[Topic + comment sentence] 这么高难度的手术 (such a difficult operation) 我第一次挑战。 (I challenge it for the first time)
次 can be a ...
But if the sentence doesn't have the verb 是 in it, is it still correct to use 是不是 as a tag question? Example: 你认识我，是不是？
Yes, you don't need to have a 是 in a statement to add 是不是 at the end of it.
"是不是" literally means "yes or no? = is it true?" It is a request for confirmation, The answer could be 是 or 不是
It could also be a rhetorical ...
You can say "You are James, aren't you?"
And you can also say "You know me, don't you?"
As "are", "know" are both verbs here.
And the same rule goes with Chinese syntax.
You can say "你是李老师，是不是？"
You can also say "你认识我，是不是？"
The only difference here is in Chinese, you can always use "是不是" ...