11 questions in a row! 甚矣于我！
So I just correct your sentences minimally without explanation.
1.她是一个从美国来的姑娘，来中国训练中国的足球队。（You didn't use 是...的 structure actually）（苹果是红的。 is a valid example）
You are asking 11 questions in one post. If I answer all of them, It will be a very long post. Therefore, I would only answer the first question here and please post other questions in individual posts.
"是" is the verb "is"
One of the functions of "的" is as an possessive marker, adding it after a noun to indicate possessive.
Example: 中国 = China; 中国的 = "...
I think in the context that you have described, which is a pre-formatted text that is used in computer programs, both would be seen to be equally acceptable because the context is clear and there is no real ambiguity as to why it is expressed in one or the other manner.
However, if we are talking about a natural conversational setting then it obviously ...
Like in most languages, expression of the concept of not having anything in Chinese is most naturally done as a negative, viz
My English voicemail employs "You don't have any unread messages" in the same way.
However, the use of 零 líng + a classifier like 個 gè is attested, albeit in very limited contexts, most commonly in temperature (to "...
"minimum price" implies "from +(price)" e.g. "from $29.99"
"All this for the low price of..." should be translated as the following:
"All this" = "全部一起"
"(selling) for the low price of (actual price)" = "以 (actual price) 低價 (出售)" or "以 低價(actual price) (出售)"
"All this for the low price of $29.99" = "全部一起 以 $29.99 低價 出售" or "全部一起 以 低價 $29.99 出售"
最低$29.99，以上（功能/产品/blank/etc）全带走～ is an accurate, lively translation.
To be more formal: 包干最低$29.99。
I see what you mean after reading the comments, then it shulould be:
全•部•底•价！（no more, no less translation）（and certainly understandable by those who know the term 'minimum price'）（and • is for emphasis i.e. 'just'）
均仅以底价出售（elaborate it a bit）
Today we have a special discount: all 5 products for only 5 yuan.
Don't much like this English: all this for the minimum price so I wouldn't translate it.
But this is translateable:
all this for just $29.99
获得这一切只需要最低的价格 sounds very unnatural. you can simply say 只要$29.99 or 只需$29.99) which contains the meaning of minimum price without mentioning it. To be clear about "all this", I think you can use 以上(all above) or 以下 (all below) or 全部(all)
If your Chinese version referring to Chinese currency, the dollar sign is ¥.
Your question is very interesting.
考試 here is not an object. It belongs to 每次 phrase.
We can simply treat it like this pattern.
每次 + conditional phrase + consequence phrase (usually with 都 or more archaic with 皆 indicating that it is always like that).
This is a common pattern for expressing recurring consequence under certain conditions.
With this ...
I fail every geography exam (the literal translation is: Every geography exam I don't qualify for a pass).
Every time there is a geography exam I fail.
So you can see that the characters 考试 is being used as a noun, and your suggestion of using 有 in front of the noun changes the meaning of the sentence a little bit.
every geography exam I all ....not reach qualification
I flunk the geography exam every time.
There is nothing unusual about words being used for various functions. We don't know what function test has in a sentence until you see the sentence. 'I test ..., a test'.
If I asked you what is 'geography', you would probably ...
考試 can mean both a noun and a verb, either an exam, or to take an exam.
There are several things to consider in this example. There is a larger combination of the usage between 考試 and 及格 namely the phrase 考試不及格. This phrase itself means to fail an exam. In that context, 考試 is only acting as a noun. However, the present example the exam is a specific type ...
You could easily understand 飞架 as (to) span.
ABC’s definition of 飞架 is as follows:
arch/span high over (e.g., of a great bridge)
Pleco C-E’s definition is fairly similar and they add the example sentence:
Yī qiáo fēijià nán-běi, tiānqiàn biàntōng tú. (Máo Zédōng)
A bridge will fly to span the north and south, | Turning a deep ...
If the sentence was "港珠澳大桥高架三地", we can understand "高架" means "rise high"
Imagine the bridge was like a dragon, and this dragon flying high above the sea through three territories
港珠澳大桥飞架三地 would mean "the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge rises high above the sea like dragon fly through three territories"
飞架 would mean "rises high and extends far"
express that an event could have occurred in the past, if not for some
For this many languages employ the subjunctive. Spanish, for example, has 8 forms of the subjunctive. Which form to use when??
Chinese is a lot easier. Just use a word that somehow indicates 'if' and you have a subjunctive form， like 我们本可以 = we could have
We could ...
All the conjunctions in the examples you stated are applicable in Chinese
but = 但是/但
Example: [本來][X][但][Y] = [originally][X][but][Y]
if not for = 如果不是/如非 (literary)
Example: [如非][Y][那][X] = [If not for] [Y] [then] [X]
unfortunately = 可惜
Example: [應該是/應該會][X][可惜][Y] = [should be][X][unfortunately][Y]
however = 不過/只不過
Of course you can put the event before or after the date.
When you write the name of an event first, you can add the information of when this event occurs.
Example: [圣诞节] [是在] [十二月二十五日] = [Christmas] [is on] [25th December]
When you write a date first, you can add the information of what this date represents
Example: [十二月二十五日] [是] [圣诞节] = ...