16

These terms were devised in the late 20th century analysis of Classical Japanese, originally, for the difference between -(さ)す (glossed as externally instigated) and -(ら)る (glossed as internally instigated). This exoactive vs endoactive reflects 18th century Japanese use of 他動詞 vs 自動詞 (tadoushi vs jidoushi). In more traditional Western-orientated linguistic ...


14

Yes, there is a slight difference (although it appears there's no complete consensus on this). A classifier, in linguistics (not just in Mandarin), is a word or morpheme used to express that a countable noun belongs to a semantic class. Here "semantic class" means a category of referents with some common traits; if we think about how classifiers ...


8

Only the first one is correct (聲調輪廓), as a jargon used in linguistics. The second one is a (bad) word-for-word translation of tone (音調) + contour (曲綫).


7

From San Duanmu, The Phonology of Standard Chinese: While Middle Chinese (about AD 600) had over 3,000 syllables (including tonal distinctions), modern Standard Chinese (SC) has just over 1,300. Thus, over a period of 1,500 years, Chinese lost more than half of its syllables. Moreover, the syllable inventory of modern Chinese continues to shrink. In ...


7

On p. 43 of ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese By Axel Schuessler we have the following introduction: which is later expound on: On p. 44 we find the exact example that you are asking about: It also comes with an explanation: There is a little explanation also here: [...] endoactive (introvert) verbs also can be tr. like mai 'to buy (something)',...


6

結果補語的「虛」與「實」 漢語動結式(又稱黏合式述補結構)中有一類的補語被稱為「虛化結果補語」,包括「完、好、掉、住、成、著、了、過等」 根據過去的研究,虛化結果補語區別實義結果補語的特點是:皆由實義動詞虛化而來、本身詞匯意義不明顯、語義指向述語、不是動結式的語義中心、主要表示動作事件「完結、結束」等。但是,這些區別特點主要都體現語義層面上,而句法上,無論是對前項動詞的選擇、還是與賓語的搭配,虛化補語與實義補語並無明顯差異 We are familiar with the aspect markers below: 吃(eat) --> 吃了 (eat is a completed action) 吃(eat) --> 吃過 (eat is an experience action) They ...


4

I saw your question accidently on the website. I'm Chinese and I think there is a term '调值' matches the meaning with 'tone contour' in English. Here is the meaning of Chinese '调值': 调值 [ diào zhí ] 声调的高低升降的实际读音。一般用五度标记法表示,用1、2、3、4、5依次表示从最低到最高的相对高度。如普通话的阴平是高平调,调值是55,阳平是高升调,调值是35,上声是降升调,调值是214,去声是高降调,调值是51。 It means the pitch of the tone. They use 1-5 to ...


3

I think this is a result of the underlying assumptions made in a language. Case: if you assume case is necessary, you need to differentiate each noun and adjective for case, that is declension. If you have 6 cases, each noun or adjective needs 6 forms. Inflection: if you assume verbs must be inflected, you need to add syllables. A typical verb in Attic Greek ...


3

As this is a Forum for non-Chinese readers, I believe a brief translated summary of what @r13 posted might assist some on this interesting Topic. I'll only do what happens on the Mainland, and leave the rest of what happened in Taiwan to @r13? It's a rough translation, so bear with me. 中國的國語運動始于清末民初,兴盛于1920年前后,并持续到20世纪30年代,时间长达半个世纪之久的中国语文变革运动 During the late ...


3

Hope this article gives you some idea about how "the Speaking Chinese" was standardized. However, presently, there exist two closely resembling/interrelated "standards", depending on where you stand/locate - mainland China, or Taiwan. Sorry for the Chinese-only text, too long to translate accurately. 中國的國語運動始于清末民初,兴盛于1920年前后,并持续到20世纪30年代,...


3

In Chinese linguistics, the most common example of 虚化 is the grammaticalization of verbs into verbal suffixes that function as aspect markers. For example: 了, 过, 着. It is an abstraction whereby a verb "empties out" its original lexical meaning and becomes a function word. When it is used with a process (action/event) in a sentence, the ...


3

I don't think OP wanted to have a semantics or history lesson. I'm quite sure this question (OP, please tell me if I'm wrong) comes from the need to answer the fundamental questions: What language am I studying in this site? Is there more than one Chinese? Spoken language Yes, there is more than one Chinese language. According to the Merriam-Webster ...


3

白字 http://www.cantonese.sheik.co.uk/dictionary/words/14500/ wrong character of phonetic equivalent Examples of 白字詞句 (words or phrases contain wrong character of phonetic equivalent): '白撞'(to trespass under a false pretext) --> 白狀 (狀 is a wrong character that sounds the same as 撞 in Cantonese; 白狀 literally means 'baseless account') '脾氣' (temperament)--&...


3

虚化 often gets translated as 'grammaticalization'. Example: 我们考察发现虚化和同音假借是连词的主要来源。 We conclude that grammaticalization and loan homonym are the main source of conjunction. Tang Ho's excellent research cleared things up a lot! Well done! But linguists are slippery eels, twisting and turning, persistently vague! I would translate 虚化 here as 'empty'. I can only ...


3

Nouns denote things, physical or abstract. Based on the primitive properties of the things (this perception may vary according to socio-cultural background), we distinguish between "discrete nouns" and "non-discrete nouns". Nouns denoting physical things are usually discrete nouns. For example: an apple, a book, a tree, an aeroplane..., ...


2

To me, classifiers belongs to measure words. In other words, classifiers is a type of measure words. The idea of classifiers offers a way to construct a type in order to count that type of things. The essential is just for measuring. That could be the reason why we don't usually distinguish the two terms in practice. And in Chinese, we'd mark it as 量词 all ...


2

May be due to my Cantonese background I have a different understanding of the difference between 'classifier' and 'measure word as Chinese grammar terms. For me, classifier classifies objects, base on their shape, size, substance, grouping, and so on. e.g. 一條魚,一粒米, 一灘水, 一盒餅 A classifier itself is not a measure word until it is used with a counting word. In ...


2

It really does not matter that much. They are more like free variants. For learners, there are probably many aspects of pronunciation needing attention that are much more important than this. On forvo.com you can hear people from different places pronounce a word, eg. https://forvo.com/word/冰/#zh. There happen to be two speakers from mainland China and two ...


2

Short answer: the very meaning of the word Mandarin refers to government officials in imperial China. Mandarin Chinese simply refers to the common dialect spoken in official settings. As other answers point out, Mandarin Chinese has been called 官话, then 国语,then 普通话。 As to why it would be called 普通话 - it's best not to translate this to 'standard Chinese' but ...


1

I think the sense of 虚 is the same as in 虚词. According to dictionaries, 虚词 is defined as: 虚词 {语} function word; form word; empty word; grammatically-partial word; structural word; syncategorematic word The research paper in topic is talking about some characters such as 好 are in the way of getting to be 虚词(originally adjective) because in daily ...


1

Mandarin is the "Standard Chinese", and there is no such thing as "Standard Mandarin". Just like the kilogram is the base unit of mass, no such thing as "Basic Kilogram" As for how it is standardized, here is a detailed description: 推广普通话 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书


1

蒙:受迷惑(的人)。“蒙者,微昧闇弱之名。” 例句:你别蒙我。 替换为:使迷惑,属于常见的使动用法。即:“你别使我迷惑” 例句:这球踢进门,全是蒙上的。 替换为:在迷惑的状态下,往往带有侥幸的语气。即:“这球踢进门,全是在迷惑的状态下完成的” 例句:一上台就蒙了,不知道该说什么好。 本意,作为状态的转移。即:“(主语)一上台,(主语)就变得很迷惑,不知道该说什么好。” 例句:被人打蒙了。 本意,用在动词后修饰动词导致的结果,以及主语的状态。即:“(主语)被人打了,导致现在(主语)很迷惑” 磨:核心含义为摩擦,来自于碾压谷物的石制农具。“以磨碎物亦曰磨。” 例句:一上午就这么磨过去了。 摩擦后事物直观上会减少,因此引申为消耗。此处消耗的对象是时间。 例句:磨了半天他也不答应。 同上引申为消耗。...


1

In my (long) studies I've never come across a formal definition of "definiteness/indefiniteness" specifically used to describe a grammar rule of Mandarin. However the phenomenon you are talking about happens in many languages, and can be explained as stressing a certain element of a sentence by means of syntax (i.e. word order). By rearranging the ...


1

You can find the answer in 百度百科 using the key word 语气词 in Baidu search. Here is the quote relevant to your question: 普通话里最基本的语气词实际上只有六个:的、了、呢、吧、吗、啊。其他一些,有的用得较少,有的是因为语气词连用而产生连读合音的结果,例如“啦”是“了啊”的合音。这六个语气词根据在句子里出现的先后次序可以分为三组, It has a table listed all the usages of those 语气词. I can't copy the table from my mobile device. But it has this example 我不会忘记你们的。to ...


1

This kind of confusion is usually caused by using English grammar to understand Chinese. In Chinese grammar, 中國向美國報復: 中国, subject 向美国, prepositional phrase worked as adverbial(介词短语作状语); 美国 is the object of the preposition 向. 報復,predicate(谓语)


1

There isn't a certain structure of praising or disparaging something in Chinese actually. The meaning of a Chinese sentence is all about the words it uses. If simply expressing approving/disapproving attitude, we may just use 很好/不好(很壞)as below: -XXX很好 誠信很好 -XXX不好 說謊不好 More naturally, we should append a category noun and use 是 structure: -誠信是好品質 -...


1

This wiki page, History of China, provides some "basic" knowledge: The "earliest written record of Chinese" (aka oracle script) was found in bones (of ox, cow) and shells (of tortoise) in 安陽. It's about 商 dynasty (1600–1046 b.c.). About the preceding one, 夏 dynasty (bc 2070 - 1600), there was one newest discovery, related to the myth &...


1

At least in the context of 春夏秋冬 being used to represent the cycle of time, some might call that a "metonym". From The American Heritage Dictionary (on Wordnik): n. A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for ...


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