I think this talking is in such a situation:
1. The chengyu 知难而上 is used in a sentence.
2. Your friend said that 你没看出来这里面的玄机 and he explained that 知难而上 can be understood as 知男而上.
The mystery (玄机) is that the sentence uses 知难而上 instead of 知男而上, since they have the same pronounce. Why this is a mystery? Because you cannot understand the sentence if you do ...
It is correct, "自???起" means "Since ???"
自 = from
起 = begin
"(自) ??? (起)" = "(begin from) ???" = "(Since)???"
e.g."自七月起禁止捕魚" (Ban on fishing since July)
Other common structures with 自:
"自(from) ??? 以來(thereafter)" = "since ???"
e.g. 自美國立國以來 (Since the founding of the United States thereafter)
"自 (from) ??? 以後/之後 (after)" = ...
挺 is a tricky word. It make people feel "very but not quite" and you should expected "but" after sentence. If no sentence after it, you might ask for "why not?".
when sentence has 挺 as adv., It might mean "has high intention to do something but not enough motivation to do it because always has something stop me to do it."
我挺喜欢她的:I quite like her.(but I ...
玄机 basically means the tricky/wicked logic behind scene which you or normal people will never think of, but it actually work very well in the reality.
However,the case here is kind of wrong way. but it might borrow the word and express the similar meaning. because here it actually means funky and funny logic which might make you laugh. 知难而上 =>知男而上 it is ...
"clearer understanding" may not be accurate for your context. I would think you don't quite clear of the situation, and now you are clear.
In this case, it should go like: as a little girl, I don't quite understand the situation. But now I understand it. In Chinese, it could be: 我那时年纪小还不太懂，现在我才清楚是怎么回事。
"到了现在我才清楚了解当时的情况" means "the situation is completely clear for me now"
For "Now I understand more clearly about the situation back then" It should be "到了现在我才(更)清楚了解当时的情况"
It implies you had some understanding back then, but now this understanding is more clear.
I did not read your English translation. My editing is totally based on the impression I got ...
打饱嗝 = let out a (after full meal) belch
打着饱嗝 = letting out a (after full meal) belch
嫌 = dislike
缸沿 = edge of the (opening of) crock
脏 = dirty
嫌缸沿脏 = disgusted by the edge of the opening of the crock being dirty
踩上去 = step upon
蹲在上面 = crouch on top of
踩上去蹲在上面 = step upon and crouch on top of
He was disgusted by the edge of the crock opening ...
You should take 老得 separately in this case.
老: always; constantly
得(dei3): need; have to
我老得麻烦同事 means I have to bother colleagues constantly.
In 我老得不能养猫了(I'm too old to have a cat), 得 is pronounced as de and 老 means old.
It relies on context to determine whether 得 is pronounced de or dei3, which reflects different meanings.
上 functions here as a resultative complement, just like the second character in 做完 or 吃好.
Consider the difference in English between "I have not helped you" and "I have not managed to help you." managed, here, appears with the meaning of "could" or "succeeded". Think of 上 in the same way in this case.
上 denotes this sense:
（用在动词后， 表示动作的结果）(Used after a verb to indicate its result) E.g. 穿上外衣; 考上大学
我没帮上忙 means (the result is that) I have been being helpless.. It's not a word for word translation though.
In 有声书, 主播 is not just a simple reader(阅读者). They are more like 说评书者 in the past. Back in the day, 说评书者 is kind of story teller. Usually they tell stories from those ancient novels on TV or radio. Nowadays, they pick all kinds of story books on variety of medias. 网络有声书 is a new popular media they are mostly focusing on now because of a large number of ...
You are correct. 主播 (anchor person/ program host) makes no sense in this context
The one who read out the content in an 有聲書 (Audiobook) should be called "誦讀者" (one who recite text)
Or "朗讀者" (one who recite text in a clear voice) if the content is of poetic nature
阅读者 mainly mean the one who read (with eyes, not reading out with voice)
I own a few ...
装： 贮放;藏 hold, store
the salamander was still in the tall glass beaker, twisting and turning in the water,
(she) wished she could take the beaker and throw its contents in Trunchbull's face
take the beaker and its (related) contents
Oh Trunchbull, you're so sexy!
装 means contain, therefore 她再看那装着蝾螈的玻璃杯 means
She glared at the glass with the newt (contained) in it.
Here 连 means together with, therefore 恨不得跑过去把它拿起来连蝾螈带水泼在特朗奇布尔的头上 means
She longed to march up and grab the glass and tip the contents, (with) newt and all, over the Trunchbull's head
If you give more context, you will get a better translation.
When you are sick,
and you can't go to see a doctor, because you don't have any money,
even your health can't be guaranteed,
never mind talking about happiness.
health even difficult get guarantee
Is 难得到 a set phrase? No.
保证 a guarantee
断肠 is mainly used in poem. https://sou-yun.cn/ suggests it may mean:
割开或切断肠子 (cut intestine)
形容极度思念或悲痛 (miss, grief)
秋海棠花 (Begonia flower)
Here, it should be the 3rd meaning.
But 心碎 is described as: 形容悲伤至极 (extremely sad). It cannot cover the meaning of 思念、想念 "miss; think of; long for".
When it comes to lyrics, I think it's more related to rhythms. For example:
你的眼泪 让我心碎 (泪 & 碎）
让我醉 别让我心碎 （醉 & 碎）
不愿别的男人见识你的妩媚 你该知道这样会让我心碎 （媚 & 碎）
All these lyrics couldn't be replaced with 断肠 because it is not the right rhythm.
With 断肠， you can't replace with 心碎 either. e.g.
想你想断肠 泪汪汪 心也茫茫 (肠 & 汪 & 茫）
I think 斷腸 should be translated as "gut wrenching (pain/sadness)" but "heart broken" is also correct because 斷腸 and 碎心 basically have the same metaphorical meaning -- "extreme emotional pain"
斷腸 (gut wrenching): an intense sadness/ emotional pain like one's intestine is being twisted apart
心碎 (heart broken): an intense sadness/ emotional pain like one's ...
"难得到" is short for "难以得到" (hard to get). It is not a standard phrase
There is a common grammar structure here:
[連 (X) 都 (+ statement) , 更别说 (Y)了]
[even (X) (+ statement) , let alone/ not to mention (Y)]
[even (your health) (cannot be guaranteed/ ensured), let alone/ not to mention (your happiness)]
If your ...
如果 由于 缺钱 而 不能 及时 去 看医生[看病]
If you cannot visit a doctor due to lacking of money
你的 健康 都 难[以] 得到 保证
Your healthy is difficult to be guaranteed. (You cannot guarantee your healthy)
难以: difficult to
更别说 幸福 了
let along happinese
更别说：let alone ..., literally "don't even mention"