Yes, there is a slight difference (although it appears there's no complete consensus on this).
A classifier, in linguistics (not just in Mandarin), is a word or morpheme used to express that a countable noun belongs to a semantic class. Here "semantic class" means a category of referents with some common traits; if we think about how classifiers ...
年 is not measure word. It is noun.
那年夏天: the summer of that year
那个夏天: that summer
They both refer to a specific summer, but the first one leaves the context on the year, while the second one solely focuses on the summer. To demonstrate the difference with follow-up questions:
那年夏天特别热。It was extremely hot in the summer of that year.
General answer to disrespectful measure words
I can't recall any special disrespectful measure words in Chinese. Such disrespectful phrases are just expressed with simple measure words according to the noun. Like
一个笨蛋 [offensive level: 1]
一个饭桶 [offensive level: 2]
一个贱人 [offensive level: 4]
一个傻逼 [offensive level: 5, with profanity word 屄/逼(cunt)]
个 is a generic identifier for all objects. 这 and 那, as you know, are just specifiers for this or that.
Now, if you know the specific measure word for the object you're trying to describe, you should use it. It makes you sound more fluent/mature... you'll often hear kids in China use 个 for everything...
Like, 这条鱼 (Zhè tiáo yú) sounds much better than 这个鱼 (...
You're right that 口 is one of the measure words for 人, but 人 (people/person) and 人口 (population) are two different words. The word 人口 is mostly used for the population of a city or a country instead of a household.
You can say 几口人 (how many 'units' of people), 三口人 (three 'units' of people), but not 三口人口 (three 'units' of population).
All of them are OK to use to classify 房子, it depends on the type of house itself, which one is considered the more adequate.
幢 is preferred when speaking of large and tall buildings
栋 tends to be used to refer to buildings that are wide
座 is used for buildings that are “stable and steady", e.g. palace, temple, large mansions (mostly with public purpose)
 (measure) time (as used to indicate number of occurrence)
 (measure) piece (as used for happenings or events)
回 is a measure word for event or occurrence ; 这回事 means "this (piece of) event" or "this (time of) occurrence"
Different between 回 and 件 as measure word is:
回 measure specific course of events (how many times it happens)...
The other answers are absolutely correct – it’s not smart to talk about countable and uncountable nouns in Chinese. However, like many languages, Chinese does have words that express abstract concepts or that are somehow inherently plural. How are these dealt with in a system where everything must be counted/measured? Here’s how one grammar explains it.
First, your are correct that 汉子 is more commonly being refer to as a man / manhood. And 条 is quantifier for refering things that are long, straight. So go figure =P.
However, 条 is not derogatory. We also use 条 for a life e.g. 一条人命, or a river 一条河, or loyalty 一条心. So it very much depends on the context.
The reason is that 天, 日, 周, 年 are themselves counter words / classifiers (so they don't need an extra one), while 星期, 礼拜, 月 are not classifiers and therefore require a classifier, which happen to be 个 for the all of them.
Note that although 月 is listed with the ones that require a classifier, it's quite frequent to hear 每月 as well (which I believe makes ...
To me, 部 is a formal classifier for 手机. 台 is usually used for a bigger machine, like computer & TV 一台电脑 & 一台电视. 一台手机 doesn't sound quite right to me.
一把手机 is not used in practice for whatever reason. I guess it might be because 我要买一把手机 could mean you want to buy a handful of 手机s, implying several 手机s, not just one.
Colloquially, sometimes I ...
Some nouns need a classifier, some don't; 月(month) needs one but 天(day) doesn't.
一年有十二個月 - 月(month) needs a classifier
一年有十二個月份 - 月份(month) needs a classifier
一年有五十二週 - 週(week) doesn't need a classifier
一年有五十二個星期 - 星期(week) needs a classifier
一年有三百六十五天 - 天(day) doesn't need a classifier
一年有四季 - 季(season) doesn't need a classifier
一年有四個季節 - 季節 (season)...
Stop reading that article - it is totally wrong.
The issue is that 书 and 书本 are both plural and singular at the same time. Which one it is depends solely on the context. For example, it is plural in 我常常讀書: "I read books often". In contrast, it is singular in 把書放下: "Put down the book."
You can specify plurals, however. How that actually works is that 本 is a ...
In my opinion, all the measure words, including 年，小时，and etc, work the same way. Let's take 年 for example.
多年 should be used only after numbers x10, like 10, 20, 30, .... For
example, 十多年：teens; 20多年：twenties; 30多年：thirties; ... ...
90多年：nineties(90-99); Thus, you can't say 9多年，11多年，...
年多 can be used after any positive integer numbers like,
“鸡”，“猫”，“狗”地 here works as an adverbial phrase modifying the verb 念.
“鸡”，“猫”，“狗” are basic noun words learnt by a beginner. Imagine the scene her 丈夫 following her reading these basic childish words, and you would get the idea of “鸡”，“猫”，“狗”地.
Another point is that they don't put 鸡，猫，狗地， but “鸡”，“猫”，“狗”地, because the quotation marks ...
You should learn those measure word one by one because most of native speakers don't use "個" for every nouns. But sometimes if you forget or don't know the word you should use, most people still know what you're referring to with the word "個" in most case.
Why I said in most case? Here's an example: (Actually, it's a joke.)
The foreigners usually have a ...
Your intuition is correct.「頓」and also「餐」are measure word for meals, while「碗」is a measure word for bowls (of rice).
Since「飯」refers to both meal and cooked rice, the statement of how much you ate is inferred from the measure word.
To add: I would suggest that「碗」does not really refer to plate of food, as Chinese does not present meals that way. The western ...
For apps like Duolingo, the correct answer is the best translation, not necessary any correct equivalent translation. In this case, the authors of the app have decided that Beijing is a big place is most closely translated to 北京是个大地方. It's not bad, Beijing [北京] is [是] a [个] big [大] place [地方], but such clean and direct translations are uncommon.
The long ...
Your first two examples are not proper ones, since Chinese grammar do not usually use plural or singular form, 我有房子 could mean "I have a house" or "I have houses" ; 我有孩子 could mean " I have a child" or "I have children".
As for the third example, 我不是坏人, since 坏人 is a description word for the subject, no matter the subject is singular or plural, therefore, ...