Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...
There are many errors in the 百度百科's article you gave, so I show my punctuation of the preface first.
The content comes from the 水巷孑蠻's answer.
After he had this thought, as fast as a strong man bent and straightened the arm, disappeared in Tuṣita Heaven, appeared in front of the Buddha, and bowed the Buddha's feet.
如力士屈申臂頃 describes the speed is very fast or the period is very short.
屈 and 申(伸) are two different movements....
An excellent resource for answering questions like this is 漢字古今音資料庫 at http://xiaoxue.iis.sinica.edu.tw/ccr/. Unfortunately it doesn't have Song or Yuan reconstructions, but it does list the 攝, which is a Song era classification. 祯 was in 梗攝, and 蒸 was in 曾攝 so they shouldn't have been complete homonyms. The difference, however, was probably in the vowel, ...
As an addendum, two brief comments regarding how tones are reflected in the languages that borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese:
According to the Wikipedia page on ‘Sino-Xenic pronunciations’, “[m]ost Middle Chinese tones were preserved in the tones of Middle Korean, but these have since been lost in all but a few dialects.” The source cited seems ...
I'm not an expert on historical Chinese phonology, but this doesn't seem like an uncharacteristically distant sound evolution compared to other words:
Hanzi | Old Chinese | Middle Chinese | Mandarin
學 | *m-kˤruk | ɦˠʌk̚ | xué
穴 | *[ɢ]ʷˤi[t] | ɦwet̚ | xué
This is a feature of certain Hakka varieties, but there is some controversy. Jerry Norman's 1986 work "What is a 客家 Kèjiā Dialect?" puts it thus:
To determine whether a dialect is Kèjiā or not, one should examine shǎng tone words having sonorant (nasal and lateral) initials. If the dialect is truly Kèjiā, such words will fall into two groups, one ...
The following answer is a translation and summary from Lin (2013:6-8). This also serves to supplement C.K.'s observation.
Rhymes placed in grade III include eight chongniu rhymes (重紐八韻), ten labiodental rhymes (輕唇十韻), and normal grade III rhymes (普通三等韻).
Openness is determined by the absence of the rounded prenuclear glide /u/ or /w/. The following is a ...
The main go-to source is Schuessler's 2009 work Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese.
As this "Later Han Chinese" is of the 1st century CE, it falls directly in between the Zhou Dynasty's Classical Chinese and Qieyun 切韵 of the Sui dynasty. It is the pronunciation of the 说文解字, of the 释名, as well as early Buddhist literature with all their ...
i'm not dare to make translation of buddhism term, so this answer is mixed with chinese and english.
when "給孤獨長者" died, he reincarnated in 兜率天, as "兜率天子".
he thinks :"i should not stay here for long, i should meet Śhakyamuni Buddha (世尊)"
in buddism, "兜率天" is a faraway from our world (人間), but, he overcomes this distance & time easily.
Though I emphasize Cantonese here, any southern dialect / language that still have entering tone (入聲); e.G. Hakka and Min, would have a similar scenario.
The oldest rime dictionary (韻書) I found, is 鉅宋廣韻, printed in 1169; that the national archives of Japan has a downloadable copy:
first, the text quoted by baidu has several significant, unbearable errors, beware :(
the original preface of 切韻, by 陸法言; is quoted in 鉅宋廣韻 (printed in 1169), that the national archives of japan has a downloadable copy. it's page 3 & 4 of 卷一:
imo, for ...
Wikipedia is your friend:
See also: Four tones
The Qieyun classified characters in four parts according to their tone: even tone (píngshēng 平聲), rising tone (shǎngshēng 上聲), departing tone (qùshēng 去聲), and entering tone (rùshēng 入聲). The "entering tone", also known as a "checked tone", actually refers to syllables characterized by a final stop ...
It is better to translate it as a full noun phrase such as "the inside of your mind" to help your understanding.
心中 is more of written Chinese.
I bet you found the word 心中 from a song or poem etc since it is rarely used in a daily conversation. A colloquial synonym is 心里 which has the same meaning, where 里 means inside (for example, 里面 inside)
To be short, the labiodentalization took place in ten rhyme groups called the Ten Labiodental Rhymes (輕唇十韻), which is 東(三), 鐘, 微, 虞, 廢, 文, 元, 陽, 尤, 凡. All of them are hekou (合口) except 尤. All of your examples belong to the rhyme group You (尤韻).
This is because that the labial-initial syllables of the rhyme group You(尤韻) had merged into the rhyme group Yu(虞韻) ...
As we know that 知母 did not exist in Old Chinese. It was later derived from 端母 in Middle Chinese.
The milage that a word differentiating 知母 from 端母 varied in Middle Chinese. Some changed to 知母 in Early Middle Chinese but some did not. And 樁 finally went to 知母.
Due to the vastness of the ancient empires, we must beware that Early Middle Chinese was not a ...
"以何" was used in classical chinese roughly as "by (以) which / what (何)".
though, it's not 100%, most of this usages were questions.
the verses "以何方便 而受道法 何因令獲 從佛經教" is from 正法華經 卷第七
in which 方便 is upāya-mukha (方便門), since there're many ways to learn ...
"所以" is reason (#4 definition in the below link).
roughly, i would interpret this verse as:
please listen to (聽) what i say (吾所說)
the reason (所以) in my heart (心中)
edited, in lieu of long comment.
the context is set, in 雜阿含經卷第二十三 [0168b13]