Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...
There are many errors in the 百度百科's article you gave, so I show my punctuation of the preface first.
The content comes from the 水巷孑蠻's answer.
As your linked table indicates, the Middle Chinese 陰上 tone generally corresponds to Cantonese tone 2 and Mandarin tone 3, so it is indeed curious that you see both words having tone 4 in Mandarin, which typically corresponds to Middle Chinese 去 tones or 陽上 tones where the syllable onset is an obstruent (全濁聲母).
Looking up the characters in the Kangxi ...
After he had this thought, as fast as a strong man bent and straightened the arm, disappeared in Tuṣita Heaven, appeared in front of the Buddha, and bowed the Buddha's feet.
如力士屈申臂頃 describes the speed is very fast or the period is very short.
屈 and 申(伸) are two different movements....
It's not just Cantonese. In Taiwanese Minnan (which does also preserve the labial final -m, usually), the finals of 法、凡、品 have also become alveolar. Also, most Hakka varieties have made the final of 品 alveolar too.
This phenomenon is examined in p.258 under "Long-distance C..C effects", in the chapter on "Consonant-vowel interaction in Cantonese" by Moira ...
As an addendum, two brief comments regarding how tones are reflected in the languages that borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese:
According to the Wikipedia page on ‘Sino-Xenic pronunciations’, “[m]ost Middle Chinese tones were preserved in the tones of Middle Korean, but these have since been lost in all but a few dialects.” The source cited seems ...
BTW, I have Schuessler's book, and the transcription shown in parentheses after the character indicates the Middle Chinese rather than Old Chinese pronunciation, so ńźi refers to MC rather than OC pronunciation.
Back to your question, it's important to note that initial ńź- is being used as a transcription rather than an indication of the actual ...
An excellent resource for answering questions like this is 漢字古今音資料庫 at http://xiaoxue.iis.sinica.edu.tw/ccr/. Unfortunately it doesn't have Song or Yuan reconstructions, but it does list the 攝, which is a Song era classification. 祯 was in 梗攝, and 蒸 was in 曾攝 so they shouldn't have been complete homonyms. The difference, however, was probably in the vowel, ...
Wikipedia is your friend:
See also: Four tones
The Qieyun classified characters in four parts according to their tone: even tone (píngshēng 平聲), rising tone (shǎngshēng 上聲), departing tone (qùshēng 去聲), and entering tone (rùshēng 入聲). The "entering tone", also known as a "checked tone", actually refers to syllables characterized by a final stop ...
first, the text quoted by baidu has several significant, unbearable errors, beware :(
the original preface of 切韻, by 陸法言; is quoted in 鉅宋廣韻 (printed in 1169), that the national archives of japan has a downloadable copy. it's page 3 & 4 of 卷一:
imo, for ...
i'm not dare to make translation of buddhism term, so this answer is mixed with chinese and english.
when "給孤獨長者" died, he reincarnated in 兜率天, as "兜率天子".
he thinks :"i should not stay here for long, i should meet Śhakyamuni Buddha (世尊)"
in buddism, "兜率天" is a faraway from our world (人間), but, he overcomes this distance & time easily.
It is better to translate it as a full noun phrase such as "the inside of your mind" to help your understanding.
心中 is more of written Chinese.
I bet you found the word 心中 from a song or poem etc since it is rarely used in a daily conversation. A colloquial synonym is 心里 which has the same meaning, where 里 means inside (for example, 里面 inside)
"以何" was used in classical chinese roughly as "by (以) which / what (何)".
though, it's not 100%, most of this usages were questions.
the verses "以何方便 而受道法 何因令獲 從佛經教" is from 正法華經 卷第七
in which 方便 is upāya-mukha (方便門), since there're many ways to learn ...
"所以" is reason (#4 definition in the below link).
roughly, i would interpret this verse as:
please listen to (聽) what i say (吾所說)
the reason (所以) in my heart (心中)
edited, in lieu of long comment.
the context is set, in 雜阿含經卷第二十三 [0168b13]
Though I emphasize Cantonese here, any southern dialect / language that still have entering tone (入聲); e.G. Hakka and Min, would have a similar scenario.
The oldest rime dictionary (韻書) I found, is 鉅宋廣韻, printed in 1169; that the national archives of Japan has a downloadable copy: