Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...
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石 毛 doesn't seem to have much of a record as far as I can tell.
No results found for “⿱石毛”.
where ⿱ means top/bottom components in order of: 石(top) 毛(bottom)
𥎿 日 also doesn't seem to have an exact match ...
reference: 现代汉语词典，第6版 (Contemporary Chinese Dictionary, 6th Edition).
This dictionary gives 8 basic meaning items for 就.
approach, get close to
get to, begin to do
passive, -ed by
eat something (side dish) together with other thing (main course)
[preposition] a: by, at somebody's convenience, take advantage of. b: about, concerning, with ...
Cantonese might preserve more sound distinctions than Mandarin, but they're both derived (as are most, though not all, modern dialects) from Middle Chinese.
The current consensus, arrived at slowly over decades, appears to be that Old Chinese was toneless; this doesn't mean that predecessors of the entering "tone" didn't exist, but there were more endings ...
The equivalent of 子 for women is also 子.
Examples from Old Chinese texts:
The Works of Mencius: "Breaking into your landlord's house and harass the virgin girl gets you a wife; refrain from harassing and you don't get a wife. Does that mean you would do it?"
I doubt it. Baxter and Sagart themselves mention, in their recent book on Old Chinese, that the reconstruction is at least partly schematic: The symbols are meant to be phonemic, not phonetic. Roughly speaking, that means that their main function is to trace the etymology of the spoken language, not to reflect how the sounds were actually realized. In ...
The qu4 去 tone class in Middle Chinese is generally understood to derive from an OC suffix –s. Sagart regards the whole class as deriving from this process (Roots of OC, p. 131). This results in word pairs of plain root and root + s that in Middle Chinese and later differ by tone.
If the –s is applied to a root that ends in a stop, it seems to efface that ...
As an addendum, two brief comments regarding how tones are reflected in the languages that borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese:
According to the Wikipedia page on ‘Sino-Xenic pronunciations’, “[m]ost Middle Chinese tones were preserved in the tones of Middle Korean, but these have since been lost in all but a few dialects.” The source cited seems ...
Perspective from Japanese
The primary meaning for 就 in Japanese (which as you may know often tends to keep the Classical Chinese meaning for characters) is to "stick to", "arrive at", "become (something)" and is related to a word that is written with 「従」（从） meaning "follow" or "obey", .
From that perspective I think your theory holds up well.
I would say ...
You ask: "Why the hell 'tall building + very' became 'to become a subject'?! "
First of all, 尤 did not mean "very," it meant "stand out."
就 the character is a pictorial rebus of a tall building that stands out, a great edifice, if you will.
《说文解字注》 writes: "廣韵曰。就、成也。迎也。卽也。" 成 means "accomplish/achieve," you can still see it in 成就. 迎 means "face toward" ...
From Tao Te Ching ("Canon of morality") attributed to Laozi. These words are excerpted from various parts. Various translation exists, and here I am just being literal.
The utmost goodness [or benevolence] is like the water. Water is good at being benevolent to everything, and does not compete with them.
It is concrete ...
将 before a verb is functioning as a [modal verb]: 'will / will soon'
(将)回家 = (will) go home
(将)死 = (will) die/ will die (soon)
将/把 before a noun is functioning as a [depositive marker] that marks the noun to be deposited by the verb
打死他 (beat him to death)
将他打死 (take him, and beat to death) - 将 marks 他 as the object that's being ...
“江上清风， 山间明月” from 《赤壁赋》 by 苏轼.
Breeze over the river and moon between the mountains.
江: river, especially Changjiang river.
上: above, over
风: wind, breeze
间: among, between
惟 江上 之 清风，与 山间 之 明月，耳得之而为声，目遇之而成色，取之无禁，用之不竭。
(When talking about all the things in the universe), ...
In IPA, reconstructions are prefixed with an asterisk *, which is the linguists' reminder to the reader that the presented reconstruction isn't proposing that this is how people actually spoke, but an ancestral model which can explain the sounds of today.
Its purpose is only to help people draw etymological connections, not anything else.
This being said, ...
From a letter of John Renfroe,
CEO and Co-founder, Outlier Inc.
I haven't looked into this character very much, but on a quick search (meaning I read the entry in 說文新證), here's what I've got.
The ancient form in your post on stack exchange is 亯 over 京. That's how it was written from the Shang dynasty through the Warring States period. In Qin, it was ...
Wikipedia is your friend:
See also: Four tones
The Qieyun classified characters in four parts according to their tone: even tone (píngshēng 平聲), rising tone (shǎngshēng 上聲), departing tone (qùshēng 去聲), and entering tone (rùshēng 入聲). The "entering tone", also known as a "checked tone", actually refers to syllables characterized by a final stop ...
臾 is actually a verb meaning "to tie up and drag", hence what the character looked like. But it can be used together with 須 as a noun, i.e. as 須臾, to mean "a while". This practice emerged by the Warring States era and so is just about as ancient as the time the character took definitive shape..
In general, it is 女.
There are books such as 女訓 (Advice for Women) and 烈女傳 (Biographies of Notable Women).
Also, 子 in 青青子衿 explicity referring to the lady's lover (where the whole sentence means her lover's green collar) , instead of referring to a man.
Let's look at some references to the two to see the difference. Here's an early reference from Zhuangzi, Chapter 1, 内篇：
Or in translation:
The perfect man is without self, the holy man is without achievement, the sage is without name.
To quote from Baidu:
In the Odes of the Classic of Poetry (詩經) dated from 11th to 6th BC, occasionally, entering tone (入聲) characters were used, for the purpose of rhyming (押韻).
Considering that there were much fewer entering tone (入聲) characters, this phenomenon (rhyming with entering tone 押入聲韻) should be highly appreciated while reading.
For example, the last groups of verse ...
I think after 3 years I've cracked it. My original post is wrong. 就 is not "subject". It's more simple than this:
就 as a verb used to mean "to take"
就 as a conjunction now means "AND", thus extending original meaning "to take". Since you are "with an object" when you "take it", that is, it can be said that you are in a situation of "you AND it". Mind you ...
If you can read traditional Chinese characters, I recommend the book "釧影樓回憶錄" by 包天笑 (PDF file).
It is in written vernacular Chinese, an easy read, with numerous "gems". The author talks about his own experience of learning, and attending examinations at about 1883. related chapter: p43~p54, p72~p78, p83~p114.
Briefly, when children had a ...
The main go-to source is Schuessler's 2009 work Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese.
As this "Later Han Chinese" is of the 1st century CE, it falls directly in between the Zhou Dynasty's Classical Chinese and Qieyun 切韵 of the Sui dynasty. It is the pronunciation of the 说文解字, of the 释名, as well as early Buddhist literature with all their ...
Classical / literary chinese is a fuzzy language, and there are subtle differences amongst dynasties, authors. Using dictionaries to learn how to write, is, well, side way (歧路).
Understanding particles (虛字) and "pausing at the end of a phrase or sentence" (句讀) are crucial. After managing these two skills, one could write naturally.
For particles (虛字), the ...
"三窟已就" means "all three holes have been completed".
It comes from the etymology of "狡兔三窟", originated from 戰國策.
A rabbit has three/several (according to the origin, it is indeed three) holes to live in, so if one is destroyed/occupied, it can still live in others. This is a metaphor when an adviser advises his master not to be overdependent on his current ...