18

Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...


8

If you're having trouble displaying the following characters install the Hanazono font. zisea 𬚆 𬚆 unicode码:2C686 zisea 𩫁 𩫁 unicode码:29AC1 拼音mao4 石 毛 doesn't seem to have much of a record as far as I can tell. No results found for “⿱石毛”. where ⿱ means top/bottom components in order of: 石(top) 毛(bottom) 𥎿 日 also doesn't seem to have an exact match ...


8

reference: 现代汉语词典,第6版 (Contemporary Chinese Dictionary, 6th Edition). This dictionary gives 8 basic meaning items for 就. approach, get close to get to, begin to do passive, -ed by finish, become eat something (side dish) together with other thing (main course) [preposition] a: by, at somebody's convenience, take advantage of. b: about, concerning, with ...


7

Cantonese might preserve more sound distinctions than Mandarin, but they're both derived (as are most, though not all, modern dialects) from Middle Chinese. The current consensus, arrived at slowly over decades, appears to be that Old Chinese was toneless; this doesn't mean that predecessors of the entering "tone" didn't exist, but there were more endings ...


7

The size of one's 胆 (gallbladder) is metaphorically an indicator of courage, 胆大 = brave; 胆小 = cowardly 有种 (have pedigree) --> having great pride --> brave Example sentence: 有种你别跑! - if you have pride (dare), don't run 有种你别再追! - if you have pride (dare), stop chasing me 斗胆: (gallbladder as big as a 斗): bold; brazen 吃了豹子胆 (ate leopard ...


6

The equivalent of 子 for women is also 子. 【清·張自烈·正字通】子部:女子亦稱子 Examples from Old Chinese texts: 【孟子·告子下】逾東家牆而摟其處子,則得妻,不摟,則不得妻,則將摟之乎? The Works of Mencius: "Breaking into your landlord's house and harass the virgin girl gets you a wife; refrain from harassing and you don't get a wife. Does that mean you would do it?" 【詩經·國風·周南·桃夭】桃之夭夭,灼灼其華;之子于歸,宜其室家!...


6

Baxter–Sagart's (2014:135) view on *s.t-: Preinitial *s- had a range of effects on unaspirated stops and affricates . . . Old Chinese *s.t-, but not *s.tʕ-, evolves to MC sy- (plausibly [ɕ]), presumably through an intermediate stage [stɕ] that simplified to the Middle Chinese palatal fricative sy- under the influence of pre-initial *s: *s.t- > *stɕ- > ...


5

I doubt it. Baxter and Sagart themselves mention, in their recent book on Old Chinese, that the reconstruction is at least partly schematic: The symbols are meant to be phonemic, not phonetic. Roughly speaking, that means that their main function is to trace the etymology of the spoken language, not to reflect how the sounds were actually realized. In ...


5

The qu4 去 tone class in Middle Chinese is generally understood to derive from an OC suffix –s. Sagart regards the whole class as deriving from this process (Roots of OC, p. 131). This results in word pairs of plain root and root + s that in Middle Chinese and later differ by tone. If the –s is applied to a root that ends in a stop, it seems to efface that ...


5

As an addendum, two brief comments regarding how tones are reflected in the languages that borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese: According to the Wikipedia page on ‘Sino-Xenic pronunciations’, “[m]ost Middle Chinese tones were preserved in the tones of Middle Korean, but these have since been lost in all but a few dialects.” The source cited seems ...


5

I believe this is the original text: 今有葭二莖生池中,並根杪齊,出水三尺,即葭一莖斜去至岸九尺,與水適平,問水深若干? It also comes with the following, hard to read, illustration: This is the measure word you're asking about: 尺 MDBG: chǐ a Chinese foot / one-third of a meter / a ruler / a tape-measure / one of the three acupoints for measuring pulse in Chinese medicine / CL: 支, 把 Wiktionary ...


4

Perspective from Japanese The primary meaning for 就 in Japanese (which as you may know often tends to keep the Classical Chinese meaning for characters) is to "stick to", "arrive at", "become (something)" and is related to a word that is written with 「従」(从) meaning "follow" or "obey", . From that perspective I think your theory holds up well. I would say ...


4

You ask: "Why the hell 'tall building + very' became 'to become a subject'?! " First of all, 尤 did not mean "very," it meant "stand out." 就 the character is a pictorial rebus of a tall building that stands out, a great edifice, if you will. 《说文解字注》 writes: "廣韵曰。就、成也。迎也。卽也。" 成 means "accomplish/achieve," you can still see it in 成就. 迎 means "face toward" ...


4

From Tao Te Ching ("Canon of morality") attributed to Laozi. These words are excerpted from various parts. Various translation exists, and here I am just being literal. 上善若水。水善利萬物而不爭。(part 8) The utmost goodness [or benevolence] is like the water. Water is good at being benevolent to everything, and does not compete with them. 守靜篤。(part 16) It is concrete ...


4

将 before a verb is functioning as a [modal verb]: 'will / will soon' Example: (将)回家 = (will) go home (将)死 = (will) die/ will die (soon) 将/把 before a noun is functioning as a [depositive marker] that marks the noun to be deposited by the verb Example: 打死他 (beat him to death) 将他打死 (take him, and beat to death) - 将 marks 他 as the object that's being ...


4

山 江 间 上 明 清 月 风 “江上清风, 山间明月” from 《赤壁赋》 by 苏轼. it means: Breeze over the river and moon between the mountains. 江: river, especially Changjiang river. 上: above, over 清: refreshing 风: wind, breeze 山: mountains 间: among, between 明: bright 月: moon 惟 江上 之 清风,与 山间 之 明月,耳得之而为声,目遇之而成色,取之无禁,用之不竭。 Translation: (When talking about all the things in the universe), ...


3

古漢語既常以單字爲詞,容個人推薦 《王力古漢語字典》。 我也很贊成@水巷孑蠻的建議,應該用繁體讀古文。不但有簡繁轉換一對多的一個問題,古文裏假借與通假字甚多,分析古文的時侯字與詞的聲、調、韻等十分重要。簡體新造字用的聲部多數都不符合古漢語的聲韻。 例:《王力古漢語字典》「語」字詞條:


3

If you can read traditional Chinese characters, I recommend the book "釧影樓回憶錄" by 包天笑 (PDF file). It is in written vernacular Chinese, an easy read, with numerous "gems". The author talks about his own experience of learning, and attending examinations at about 1883. related chapter: p43~p54, p72~p78, p83~p114. Briefly, when children had a ...


3

In IPA, reconstructions are prefixed with an asterisk *, which is the linguists' reminder to the reader that the presented reconstruction isn't proposing that this is how people actually spoke, but an ancestral model which can explain the sounds of today. Its purpose is only to help people draw etymological connections, not anything else. This being said, ...


3

From a letter of John Renfroe, CEO and Co-founder, Outlier Inc. I haven't looked into this character very much, but on a quick search (meaning I read the entry in 說文新證), here's what I've got. The ancient form in your post on stack exchange is 亯 over 京. That's how it was written from the Shang dynasty through the Warring States period. In Qin, it was ...


2

Wikipedia is your friend: Tones See also: Four tones The Qieyun classified characters in four parts according to their tone: even tone (píngshēng 平聲), rising tone (shǎngshēng 上聲), departing tone (qùshēng 去聲), and entering tone (rùshēng 入聲). The "entering tone", also known as a "checked tone", actually refers to syllables characterized by a final stop ...


2

臾 is actually a verb meaning "to tie up and drag", hence what the character looked like. But it can be used together with 須 as a noun, i.e. as 須臾, to mean "a while". This practice emerged by the Warring States era and so is just about as ancient as the time the character took definitive shape..


2

In general, it is 女. There are books such as 女訓 (Advice for Women) and 烈女傳 (Biographies of Notable Women). Also, 子 in 青青子衿 explicity referring to the lady's lover (where the whole sentence means her lover's green collar) , instead of referring to a man.


2

《康熙字典》 又《集韻》《正韻》𠀤與格同,至也。《易·萃卦》王假有廟。 from Kangxi Dicitionary: the 13th meaning of 假 It pronounces as 格, means 'arrive'. Example sentence from Yi Cuigua: The King arrives at the ancestral temple. ^ref


2

Let's look at some references to the two to see the difference. Here's an early reference from Zhuangzi, Chapter 1, 内篇: 至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名。 Or in translation: The perfect man is without self, the holy man is without achievement, the sage is without name. To quote from Baidu: 早期道教经典《太平经》就将神仙分为六等:一为神人...五为圣人,。并称:“神人主天...圣人主治百姓。” To paraphrase: The ...


2

In the Odes of the Classic of Poetry (詩經) dated from 11th to 6th BC, occasionally, entering tone (入聲) characters were used, for the purpose of rhyming (押韻). Considering that there were much fewer entering tone (入聲) characters, this phenomenon (rhyming with entering tone 押入聲韻) should be highly appreciated while reading. For example, the last groups of verse ...


2

I think after 3 years I've cracked it. My original post is wrong. 就 is not "subject". It's more simple than this: 就 as a verb used to mean "to take" 就 as a conjunction now means "AND", thus extending original meaning "to take". Since you are "with an object" when you "take it", that is, it can be said that you are in a situation of "you AND it". Mind you ...


2

「還」(huan2),从「辵」(辶),「睘」(瞏)聲。「回歸」、「復也」是「還」字的本意,古文也偶爾用「睘」字假借爲「復也」之意。現代普通話 hai2、 huan2 二者有分工作用,前者是表示副詞的讀法,但古文竝不出現這種用法,huan2、hai2 的上古、中古等先音混用在「復也」、副詞之意。Hai2 先音不現於反切記錄,可能是白讀。 「睘」部在「還」裏衹是聲符,「睘」从「目」,「袁」省聲,本意是「目驚視也」,跟「復也」的意思不同。「睘」字在古文多被爲「還」、「環」、「縣」、「煢」詞的假借字。 「還」也當過假借字。例: 「環」 散氏盤:「道以東一奉(封),還(環),以西一奉(封)。」 《馬王堆.五十二病方》第101行:「取井中泥,以還(環)封其傷。」 「懷」 《郭店簡.尊德義》簡25:「治民非還(懷)...


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