5

From San Duanmu, The Phonology of Standard Chinese: While Middle Chinese (about AD 600) had over 3,000 syllables (including tonal distinctions), modern Standard Chinese (SC) has just over 1,300. Thus, over a period of 1,500 years, Chinese lost more than half of its syllables. Moreover, the syllable inventory of modern Chinese continues to shrink. In ...


4

In phonology, the "clean i" sound, IPA /i/, is called "close front unrounded vowel", which, in Chinese is called: 闭前不圆唇元音 The "dirty i" instead, as I learned it, should be the IPA /ɨ/, which is called "close central unrounded vowel", in Chinese: 闭央不圆唇元音 Those are the terms used in phonology, which are (more or less)...


3

Here is another input. I learnt some Chinese linguistics in a course in university. In my opinion, with historical evidence, they could be different phonemes. In my following text, IPA is used in slashes and Pinyin is used in monospaced font unless otherwise stated. i.e. the "x" in /x/ represents the velar consonant in IPA (h in Pinyin) and x is the ...


3

In this case, all of the characters were not even 平声 at all in Middle Chinese, but were all 入声 instead [Wiktionary's IPA]: 夹 (夾) /kˠɛp̚/ 扎 /t͡ʃˠɛt̚/ 击 (擊) /kek̚/ 息 /sɨk̚/ All of the above started with voiceless unaspirated (obstruent) consonants, so are all 阴入 in Middle Chinese. For Standard Mandarin, these reflexes are notoriously ...


3

The distinction between [pʲu] пю and [pju] пью for a Russian speaker may be very salient, but for the majority of Mandarin learners of Russian, it is a very difficult one to pick up. That is because the equivalent phonetic difference is not phonemic in Mandarin, and it does not matter much for comprehensible Mandarin. It is thus unsurprising that the glide ...


2

It's the IPA diacritic for the nasal release from a stopped consonant: Quoting right from that Wikipedia page: That is, the /d/ is released directly into the /n/: [ˈsʌdⁿn̩]. Where [ˈsʌdⁿn̩] is the IPA transcription of the English word "sudden", where the blocked air flow from the articulation of /d/ is released through the nose (you should feel ...


2

I think this is a result of the underlying assumptions made in a language. Case: if you assume case is necessary, you need to differentiate each noun and adjective for case, that is declension. If you have 6 cases, each noun or adjective needs 6 forms. Inflection: if you assume verbs must be inflected, you need to add syllables. A typical verb in Attic Greek ...


1

As we know that 知母 did not exist in Old Chinese. It was later derived from 端母 in Middle Chinese. The milage that a word differentiating 知母 from 端母 varied in Middle Chinese. Some changed to 知母 in Early Middle Chinese but some did not. And 樁 finally went to 知母. Due to the vastness of the ancient empires, we must beware that Early Middle Chinese was not a ...


1

I'm not sure 北方话 here means mandarin (官话) languages or the Chinese languages in northern China. If the former, most 桂柳官话, i.e. southwestern mandarins in Guangxi, meet your requirements. If the latter, some dialects in Shandong preserve the pronunciation somehow between palatal and velar. A CCP political figure 孙政才, who is from 山东荣成, speaks with an accent ...


1

If you only want it to be phonetically same, I would recommend 欧美亚特/欧尼亚特。


1

I live near Xi'an and I can confirm /pf/ & /pfʰ/ are accurate. It's literally p + f. It's like pronouncing /p/ while having your teeth on the lips for /f/, so when your mouth opens, it's a natural /f/. edit: I think it should be mentioned this is Xi'an-only. Xi'an dialect belongs to 中原官话关中片 (Central Plains Mandarin in the region of Guanzhong), but other ...


1

In the given example, 再 is the "future again", i.e., future tense: While 又 (yòu) is used for "again" in the past, 再 (zài) is used for "again" in the future. Expressing "again" in the future with "zai", Chinese Grammar Wiki; see also Comparing "zai" and "you" (Putting aside other grammar ...


1

When zài followed by a noun, it can only mean 在 When zài followed by a verb, you have to check the context. -- 我在看电影 (I am watching movies) is a complete sentence. 我再看电影 (I watch movie again) doesn't sound like a complete sentence (need more context) More example: 我在钓鱼 = I am fishing (complete sentence) 我再钓鱼 = I fishing again (seems incomplete) ...


1

There's probably some regional variation, but at least in my experience, I don't hear native speakers use either of the alternate pronunciations you describe. I would consider each of those to be distinctly non-standard. If I were to instruct a native English speaker how to pronounce 學 xué solely in writing, I might try something like "shrih?" It ...


1

I must say that the differences are not negligible to Chinese people, because they won't have a "sh" followed by "oo" or "w", and that's not the same problem as "where ya goin". To your first problem, I think it's because you're still not skilled enough to pronounce "x" (because this consonant is absent in ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible