12

You're right, most foreign words are transliterated differently in Mandarin and in Cantonese. Sometimes there are even different standards in different Mandarin speaking regions. It's an interesting idea to use characters that have similar pronunciations in both dialects to unify the transliteration but it's not what has already happened. A few examples of ...


10

You're right. Chinese people read Kanji using their Chinese pronunciations. For Chinese people who don't speak Japanese, they have probably only learned 'tokyo' from the English word and they don't have a clue what 'akihabara' is. The same applies to nouns, proper nouns and names.


9

亞洲 (亚洲) is short for 亞細亞洲 (亚细亚洲, Asia) which can be found as early as 坤輿萬國全圖 published in 1602 (萬曆三十年) , mainly by Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci or 利瑪竇 (Lì Mǎdòu), 6 Oct 1552 - 11 May 1610, who is believed to coin this transliteration into Chinese characters. 非洲 is from 阿非利加洲 (Africa). The above work, however, gives a different name for Africa: 利未亞 (...


7

紐約 in Cantonese is nau2 joek3 (j- in jyutping is pronounced like y-). That's the closest Cantonese immigrants could come to New York, I suppose... There aren't many syllabes in Cantonese that could match York: jaak [ja:k] jik joek [jøk] juk [jok] --> that last one could have been a better match.


7

The short answer: because Sun Yat-sen proclaimed it so. In a 1916 speech given in Shanghai, he asks the question: 何以不曰「中華共和國」,而必曰「中華民國」? Why instead of 中華共和國, must one say 中華民國? The reasons he gives boil down to drawing a distinction centred on the 民: saying that this is the fundamental difference between Qing dynasty feudalism and the Ancient Greek ...


6

This is a rare example of Chinese translation for foreign cities or the similar, there's no rule to govern this type. In short it translates literally the meaning of Oxford: Ox: 公牛, 牛 Ford: ferry, 津,水渡也。——《说文》 Hence, Oxford == 牛津 The meaning of ferry in 津 is not seen often in modern Chinese, here are a few examples: 天津, 天子之津渡。 城阙辅三秦 风烟望五津 ----送杜少府之任蜀川 王勃 ...


6

This is an interesting topics. I will throw in my 2 cents too :D Company Names Many big companies hire PR/Advertising firm to conduct research to create localized name or brand name. Though many times they will end up with phonetic translation, some will get nice semi-phonetic, some of them get lucky with phonetic and poetic. Famous Semi-Phonetic Coca-Cola ...


6

Town The city is "运城" ("運城" is its traditional Chinese writing). That is a well-known city in 山西. Date Year: 己酉 (1909, 1969, 2029, ..) Month: 二月 (2nd Month in Chinese Calendar, or February in Gregorian) Day: 廿四日 (24th) My guess is that date is a Chinese Calendar date. Since you said it was around 1910, so the year should be 1909. Thus, 己酉年二月廿四日 was ...


5

Sometimes, the pronunciation was based on Cantonese instead of modern Mandarin. (E.g. "Taxi" is translated as "的士" in Cantonese but it's also acceptable in Mandarin that sounds very differently) Ref:Taxi in Wikipeidia. I'm thinking it might also apply to 紐約 original sound


5

香江 ABC Canto: PLACE WORD another name for Hong Kong; refers to especially to Victoria Harbor which resembles a river separating Hong Kong Island from the Kowloon Peninsula 是次畫展於香江舉辦 si6 ci3 waa2 zin2 jyu1 hoeng1 gong1 geoi2 baan6 This time the exhibition of paintings is held in Hong Kong Notes: elegant See also 本港 bun2 gong2 香港地 ...


5

in brief, 察爾汗 is derived from mongolian. the long explanation: about 1763, there was a large-scale standardisation of names from mongolian, tibetan and various languages used by muslim into han chinese and manchurian. the result was the 24-volume book "欽定西域同文志" (~ made by imperial order 欽定, western region 西域, same language 同文, record 志). the internet ...


4

I think this is a fairly exhaustive list of currently existing countries. This does not encompass unabbreviated country names that end with 国 (e.g., 孟加拉国): Common 中国 (Zhōngguó) - P. R. China or R. O. China depending on context 法国 (Fǎguó) - France 德国 (Déguó) - Germany 泰国 (Tàiguó) - Thailand 英国 (Yīngguó) - England / UK 美国 (Měiguó) - USA 韩国 (Hánguó) - South ...


4

北 is definitely bak1. 白 is baak6. I believe this b/p issue is probably just a romanization problem. Remember 北京 was Peking in times past. Words that start with b are usually represented by letter [p] in IPA and that is how many romanizations started, from IPA. The Meyer–Wempe Cantonese romanization system is one such pinyin that does write the IPA ...


4

As a 西南人, I have to say that it is rare to hear. 南方人 (Southerner) is okay. If someone is from the south side of the Huanghe River, they would let you know which province they are literally from, like Sichuan, Yunnan or Guizhou. I suppose the reason is dialect, which so different in southern China. But 西北人 (Northwestern) is commonly heard.


4

Chinese 佛罗伦萨 fololunsa Italian Firenze [ˈfire̞nt̪s̠e̞] English Florence /ˈflɒrəns/ Latin flōrentīna /fjo.renˈti.na/ etymology from flōrēns (“flowering”). As above, 佛罗伦萨 is translate from English pronunciation. Why not from Italian (翡冷翠,still in use today for some literary effect) or from Latin(费奥伦庭那 as you typed)? 中国人谙英文者多,而习小语种者少,欧美许多非英语国家地名往往从英语转译,...


3

It is very vague, but looks like 满洲里 to me: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manzhouli


3

There are three universal rules for name translation in Mandarin: 信 :precision 达 : meaningful 雅 : elegant For places historical naming is used. But if there is no precedent name, phonetic name is used, which then has to be chosen so it is made up of elegant characters. The closest phonetic sound for New is 妞, York sound 哟. Both does not ...


3

"中东" means "the Middle East", and "华东" means "Eastern China”


3

I don't believe there is any city officially named 西京, but that name has been used to refer to at least several cities, including what is now 西安.


3

Kaifen(开封) used to be the "Dongjing" of China during Song dynasty. Xi'an(西安) was the "Western capital" of China in many dynasties. However instead of “Xijing” (西京), it was referred as "Xidu"(西都) in many ancient literature. For example: "望西都,意踌躇。" By 张养浩( Zhang yanghao ) Yuan Dynasty. But Xidu and Xijing are basically same meanning.


3

After some research into this I found this website: http://docs.bosonnlp.com/ner.html. If you set up an account on their website, you can use their NER functionality (because you need an API Token. I tried their Python example import json import requests NER_URL = 'http://api.bosonnlp.com/ner/analysis' s = ['对于该小孩是不是郑尚金的孩子,目前已做亲子鉴定,结果还没出来,' '...


3

Most countries can be abbreviated by the first character in their name especially when describing the relations between two or more countries. There are some exceptions and many will be duplicates. For example: 印 can refer to both 印度 India and 印尼 Indonesia; short for 印度尼西亚. 伊 can refer to 伊朗 Iran and 伊拉克 Iraq. 两伊 means Iran-Iraq. 新 can refer to 新加坡 ...


3

Sort by radical. 不 belongs to 一 radical (#1) therefore listed first 黑 belongs to 黑 radical: (#203) therefore listed last If the first characters are the same, the radicals of the second characters will be ranked


3

The /b/ in Cantonese and /b/ in IPA are not the same sound. Cantonese /b/ is more like an unaspirated IPA /p/ or if you want, an unvoiced IPA /b/. The 北 in 北京 and 北角 are exactly the same sound. 白 is /baak6/, same /b/ sound as in 北 , unvoiced and unaspirated bilabial stop.


3

However, I have seen instances where it is pronounced as 'pak' as in 北潭涌 (Pak Tam Chung- a place in Hong Kong). Pak Tam Chung in Cantonese is pronounced as (bak1 taam4 cung1), when Cantonese is romanised, b is usually turned into p. For example, 白田 (place in Hong Kong) is romanised as "Pak Tin" while the pronunciation is baak6 tin4 and 寶達 (another ...


3

There is actually no /pak/ in Cantonese. At all. There are a few characters that are pronounced /paak/ [long a:], 拍, 啪, 泊, 帕, 魄, 珀, 舶, 檗, 蘗, 汃, but that's about it. As others have mentioned, romanization != pronunciation. 北 (which is, by the way, the only character pronounced /bak/), is always /bak/, and nothing else. 北角, 北京, 北潭涌, 北海, it's all /bak/. If you ...


3

In English, as we all know, there are many ways of saying a "way", like road, avenue, street, boulevard and place of course. They all have different and specific meanings. However, in Chinese, we do not use that many different words. Therefore, what you would basically do is to just translate "place" into "街" or "路" and that is it! Also, as the rule says, ...


3

民国 and 共和国 mean exactly the same. However, nowadays we prefer 共和国 to 民国 as the translation of “republic”. Etymologies (word origins) The native Chinese term 民国 is actually a mimicked term from 王国 and 帝国. 王国 “king’s state”, i.e. kingdom 帝国 “emperor’s state”, i.e. empire 民国 “people’s state”, i.e. republic The Japano-Chinese term 共和国 is a ...


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