36

the "俄" part seems to have no corresponding phoneme, either in Russian or any of the other language I have looked up. Yes it's peculiar in Chinese. It's related to the Mongolian. Reference: 郭文深.俄罗斯国家名称变迁考——从“罗刹”到“俄罗斯” Summarize it in short: From Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian translated 罗斯 as oros (but not ros) followed by the Mongolian pronunciation habit, ...


22

This is actually not one character, but a stylistic conglomeration of the characters in the phrase 招財進寶, meaning "ushering in wealth and prosperity". The characters 財 and 寶 end up being represented with the same 貝 component in this "character". While the left side of 招 (扌) and the right side of 財 (才) are technically not the same component, they look similar ...


18

Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...


17

There is no single way to pronounce a given letter in the Latin alphabet. The set of rules varies wildly depending on the speaker's geographical location. That being said however, I have, a few years ago, compiled a list of common (more Northern I believe) pronunciations of Roman letters. You can find it on this subpage of my Wiktionary homepage: Roman ...


16

Voicing and Aspiration Stop consonants can fall into the following categories (roughly): Voiced stops: Vocal chords start vibrating before stop is released. E.g., English "b" as in "bat" (/bæt/ in IPA), French "b" as in "bon" = /bɔ̃/. Unvoiced unaspirated stops: Vocal chords start vibrating almost exactly when stop is released. E.g., Chinese "b" as in "bu" ...


15

For people to understand better...


15

Systems designed to represent pronunciation and to be practical at the same time don't have a 1:1 mapping between spoken sounds and written symbols. Or in other words, each sound can be represented using many symbols, or perhaps more commonly, each symbol is used to represent more than one sound. There are countless examples of this in other languages, of ...


13

Here are some different things that I have seen that has helped people pick up tones: Starting out Most books use graphs which show how each of the tones rise, fall, flatten etc (example here). It helps some people to see the difference visually and the graphs show how great an extent the tones differ. The tones also have names (not official) e.g. rising, ...


13

“俄罗斯”不是从英文或俄文来的。可能是从蒙古文Oros来的。 在中国元明朝时称俄罗斯族为“罗斯”或“罗刹国”.当时蒙古族人用蒙语拼读俄文“ROCIA”时,在“R”前面加一个元音.因此,“ROCIA”就成了“OROCCIA”.满清政府时,蒙语的“OROCCIA”转译成汉语时,就成了“俄罗斯”. The name of "Éluósī" does not come from English or Russian. It may come from Mongolian Oros. During the Chinese Yuan and Ming dynasties the Russian ethnic group was called "Luósī" or "Luóchàguó". At that time as ...


12

The rule that applies to sentences also applies to names, that is for a sentence of sequential 3rd tone characters, (Optionally) Split it to phrases by functional groups. For each group, every other character is read as 2nd tone while keeping the last character 3rd tone. 2.1. If a group has even number of characters, the tones become 2,3,...,2,3,2,3. 2.2. ...


12

What the online community thinks From Baidu 百科: 准确读音 xià zài   “下载”这个词,规范读音按照现代汉语词典、现代汉语规范词典等权威字典的标注应为“xià zài”。随着电脑的普及,这个词使用的频率越来越高,但可惜的是绝大多数人一开口就是从网上“xià zǎi”,就连播音员、主持人也读“xià zǎi”,如央视的晚间新闻在播送“网络侵权BT下载”时就读成“xià zǎi”。可以说电台、电视台的播音员、节目主持人对“xià zǎi”这个错误的读音起了推波助澜的作用。就目前的趋势来看,要推广“下载”的正确读音已非常困难,已经习非成是了。这些现象给人一种感觉,好像电台、电视台的播音员、节目主持人的发音很随意,...


12

So time for an update… If you want to play by the books, biang is not a permissible syllable. If you are concerned with what comes out of a speaker’s mouth, syllables like nim (contraction of 你們) are even possible, although they are technically surface realizations of a phonology that does not allow such syllables. The surprising fact is that iang as a rime ...


12

The rule about the 3rd tone sandhi is: When word with the 3rd tone is used alone, or used at the end of the expression, it's pronounced as the original tone, i.e. the 3rd tone. e.g. 雪, 滑雪. When two words with the 3rd tone are used together, the 1st one is pronounced as the 2nd tone. e.g. 老虎, 海岛. When word with the 3rd tone is used before other words with ...


12

In most cases, we cannot pick one of different pronunciations arbitrarily. The reason is very simple. If we can, we do not have to pronounce differently. Right? DICT.TW 線上字典 can give you the commnon definitions in English. 資料來源: MDBG CC-CEDICT Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英字典 要 [ㄧㄠˋ; yao4] important vital to want will ...


11

一 is pronounced in the first tone when it stands alone. It is pronounced in the fourth tone when it precedes a first, second, or third tone. However, it is pronounced in the second tone when it precedes a fourth tone. 不 is a bit similar: It is also pronounced in the fourth tone when it precedes a first, second, or third tone. However, it is pronounced in the ...


11

These tone changes, known as tone sandhi, are not indicated according to Hanyu Pinyin rules: 11.1 Only the original tones are indicated; tone sandhi is not indicated. This is why your Google search for "yìnián" would not necessarily yield more results, because it's still supposed to be written as "yīnián" even when it's pronounced "yìnián". EDIT: Here's ...


11

The only correct answer is "TA MA DE". This is the equivalent version of "F**K" in Chinese. I never hear people pronounce as "Di". Thinking it in other way, it will be too soft and feminine if it's pronounced as "Di". It supposed to be strong and speak with hatred.


11

一 in 一线 has two kinds of tones, and two corresponding meanings: yi1 xian4 (1st tone), means front line / 1st line, such as 一线城市 (first-tier city), 亲临一线, 一线队. yi2 xian4 (2nd tone), means a gleam of / a ray of, such as 一线光明, 一线生机. Basically, before the word with 4th tone, 一 should be pronounced as the 2nd tone (“一”的音变), such as 一样, 一辈子. But if it is used as ...


11

There have been conflicting claims on whether the second tone and the "raised third tone" are distinct, but according to Jerry Norman's 1988 book, Chinese, "Perceptual tests done by Dreher and Lee (1966) and Wang and Li (1967) established that native speakers are unable to make a consistent distinction between second tones and raised third tones" (147). So ...


11

Or do all Chinese names have only one possible reading in Mandarin? No. Apart from first names (when 多音字 (polyphone) is used they might pronounce differently), even for the last names, there're some (not much) with different pronunciations. Note that these names with different pronunciations almost means different origins. That means you have to confirm ...


11

/v/ is not an initial found in MSM. The initial /v/, though, is often found in Northern Mandarin and its branches. In fact, it can still be found, even, in distant branches like Sichuanese. If you ever saw the 马蜂窝 commercial that aired, ever single night, during the World Cup, you'd certainly notice that 唐僧's "为" is very /v/'d. You can also refer ...


10

As recorded in Baidu, this unique pronunciation of “和” as "hàn" actually originates from the Old Beijing dialect. Extracted from the blog article titled 台湾人为嘛把“和”读作hàn?, it says the following: 1945年10月台湾光复,日语的“国语”黯然退出,台胞急着要回复祖国的语文,要说国语,要认汉字。 1946年4月2日台湾省国语推行委员会正式成立。台湾国语会的标志性贡献是编订《国音标准汇编》,作为推行标准国语的根据。1946年5月1日起,由“老北京”齐铁根先生每日在清晨7时,在电台担任“国语读音示范”,播讲民众国语读本、...


10

(As I very recently learned) The standard pronunciation for 垃圾 is lājī in the PRC and lèsè in Taiwan An obvious question to ask is Why? Although I could not find an authoritative source, I have seen a number of claims that are very similar to each other. I'll refer to the talk page for 垃圾 on Wikipedia: 标准普通话是读laji,以前的国语是读lese,因为垃圾本来是在方言中首先使用的,...


10

Yep, they do As you can find on the great and all knowing wiki, the word for tea in most languages comes from the Chinese: Cognate to Min tê: English tea Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish te Finnish and Estonian tee French thé German Tee Greek τέϊον Hebrew תה Indonesian and Malay teh A great many others Cognate to Mandarin chá: Greek τσάι Japanese ...


10

You're right. Chinese people read Kanji using their Chinese pronunciations. For Chinese people who don't speak Japanese, they have probably only learned 'tokyo' from the English word and they don't have a clue what 'akihabara' is. The same applies to nouns, proper nouns and names.


10

臵 (U+81F5) [ gé | ㄍㄜˊ ] From 《康熙字典》: 《集韻》「各額」切,音「格」。與「𢓜」同。「至」也。 Same as 𢓜. It means "to arrive" or "to go to". 又《六書原》徦,俗作臵。 The original or formal form of 徦. 徦 (U+5FA6) [ jiǎ | ㄐㄧㄚˇ ] 1. 至;到。(to arrive; to go to) 2. 來。(to come) 3. 姓。(surname)


10

The pronunciation of characters was glossed using the Fanqie (反切) system, which uses two existing characters whose pronunciations are known to determine the pronunciation of the unknown character. Suppose that I wanted to know the pronunciation of「東」. Looking this character up, I'd see that it was phonologically glossed in dictionaries as 德紅切, which means ...


8

háng (in most noun) (1) line, row 表格中的一行 a row in a table, 字里行间 between the lines (2) seniority among brothers and sisters, 我排行第二 I'm the second eldest one. (3) some place of business, 银行 bank,花行 flower shop,商行 trading company (4) trade, company(not very exact) 行业,同行 (5) measure word 一行,两行 xíng (verb, use verb as noun) (1) walk -> distance ...


8

In MOST cases... Outside of Beijing, in texts, I believe the 儿 is still pronounced. But you can be sure that in spoken Chinese, it will never be pronounced (unless some kids are trying to mock the access by over accentuating it). I said in MOST cases because there are some words that have simply been adopted by non-Beijing'ers and will always be pronounced ...


8

In standard Mandarin, the pinyin h is pronounced as [x] in IPA, like ch in Scottish English loch -- yes, you're right that there's a tiny g, because [x] is a velar consonant. However, in south China, many simply say [h], although some natural assimilation may happen. For instance, for those speakers, pinyin ha is [ha] while pinyin he becomes [xɤ] (if you get ...


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