9

I like your use of 飛揚 here. While it is comical or cultural to use an otherwise unrelated word to signify an elision – e.g., consider 醬子 in place of 這樣子 in Taiwanese Mandarin internet slang – if you are looking for an answer of more academic rigour, IPA should be used, not Chinese characters or pinyin. (Because after elision, what you spell may not always be ...


7

The key to this question is which accent of Taiwan you're talking about. There is a large difference between Standard Taiwan Mandarin (標準台灣國語) and the various accents commonly found across Taiwan. There certainly are accents where there is absolutely no distinction between ㄕ (sh) vs ㄙ (s), ㄓ (zh) vs ㄗ (z), ㄔ (ch) vs ㄘ (c), ㄖ (r) vs ㄌ (l). The latter of each ...


7

They are pronounced as 2-3 but only if they are within the same word boundary. If not, they are still pronounced as 3-3. I have given this example before:(一桶)(柳橙)。桶and柳are both third tone. Because they are in different word boundaries, there is no tone sandhi. They are pronounced as 3-3, or, more accurately, 3h-3h.


6

The consonant sound written with j- in Pinyin does not exist in English, so using English words to approximate it will always be wrong to some extent. Pinyin j consists of two sounds, a stop and a fricative. Let's start with the fricative, written [ɕ] in IPA (the International Phonetic Alphabet) and x in Pinyin. To produce this sound, place the tip of your ...


6

Zhang and Yang (2007:157–165) classifies consonantal assimilation (輔音同化) in Mandarin into three types: Progressive assimilation (前化後, lit. prior converts latter) Regressive assimilation (後化前, lit. latter converts prior) Bidirectional assimilation (前後互化, lit. prior and latter convert each other) Examples of regressive assimilation /n/ → [m] / _ [p pʰ m] (= ...


6

In actual speech (after tone sandhi), two third tones never appear consecutively, whether they are in one word or not. So it should be pronounced as yi4ju2liang3de2 (tone sandhi also happens for yi1).


5

This is probably a better question for linguistics stack exchange; however, I will say that you are not hearing things incorrectly. My background is in linguistics, though not specifically in phonetics and phonology, so don't consider this an expert opinion. However, given some searching, I've found a helpful Wikipedia (Glides section) note on this: The ...


5

Zhang and Yang (2007:84-89) describe several instances where pronunciations in the neutral tone and the citation tone of a word may coexist: When contrasting polysemy (辨義). Usually, the neutral tone marks informality or figurative speech. 東西 dōng xi means 'thing; item', but dōng xī means literally the East and West (the cardinal points, or more broadly ...


5

http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2016-08/12/c_129224485.htm This article said that the shouts of players after scoring have no practical meaning, just to relieve pressure“这是一种情绪的释放”. The shouts of players are different, there are "sa", "ja", "yo", "ho", "ju", etc. I watched the game you asked, their shouts are ...


4

In certain cases compound words and set phrases may be contracted into single characters. Some of these can be considered logograms, where characters represent whole words rather than syllable-morphemes, though these are generally instead considered ligatures or abbreviations (similar to scribal abbreviations, such as & for "et"), and as non-...


4

I've come across words like this a couple of times. 逝世 shìshì 致志 zhìzhì 世事 shìshì Alliteration (双声) seems to be quite common in Putonghua, and this is an extreme form of alliteration. It's interesting how all these examples use the fourth tone. There are more words like this but they tend to be less commonly used or literary words (书面语). Eg: 幽忧 yōuyōu Edit: ...


4

敢吗?= Dare you? = gǎn ma? 干嘛? = What's up? What are you doing? = gàn má?


4

The initial in 綠 (lü) and 陸 (lu) are the same. You are essentially asking how to pronounce the pinyin ü and u. Silently, round your lips tightly into a small circle (but don't close it completely). Within the oral cavity, place the tip of your tongue at the very front. Now make some sound from your vocal cords. You are now pronouncing the close front ...


4

This is a feature of certain Hakka varieties, but there is some controversy. Jerry Norman's 1986 work "What is a 客家 Kèjiā Dialect?" puts it thus: To determine whether a dialect is Kèjiā or not, one should examine shǎng tone words having sonorant (nasal and lateral) initials. If the dialect is truly Kèjiā, such words will fall into two groups, one ...


4

FYI, you're overemphasising the importance of this. Firstly, the de facto international Chinese character radical indexing standard is the Kangxi system for orthodox characters, which is what Unicode primarily focuses on, not Xinhua dictionary's Simplified Chinese system (which itself is derived from the Kangxi system). Secondly, radicals are not character ...


4

蛤(gé) is correct. 蛤蟆(há ma) 蛤only pronounced há when it means toad. 蛤is pronounced (gé) when it refers to shell creature in deep ocean. There should be no toads in the deep sea.蛤,蚌,蟹,贝壳,红冠蠕虫 are all mollusca. so in this context, 蛤means 蛤蜊(gé​lí​).


3

(y)i, (w)u "High vowel" / "glide + analogous-high-vowel" are non-contrasting in Standard Chinese, and can be pronounced either way: Chinese also lacks the contrast between V and GV, or VC and GVC, where V is a high vowel and G is the corresponding glide, such as the pairs in (30). The Phonology of Standard Chinese, 3.7 Allophonic ...


3

If I understand your question correctly, the answer is no, Mandarin -en is not part of -eng, just like English "sin" is not part of "sing". Even though "ng" is written with two letters in both Mandarin and English, there is only one sound: [ŋ]. That's the sound at the end of "sing" in English. Pinyin -n is close to the ...


3

In pinyin erhua is usually written with a natural tone: r 哪儿, like you mentioned above, for example is written: nǎr Erhua is tacked on to the end of the pinyin and the tone is in the usual place for the preceding character. An easier way to see this is probably for a word like 瓶儿. 瓶儿 is written: píngr The erhua is not merged into the pinyin (like you ...


3

It's pronounced deng2deng3 as in the typical tonal sandhi of two consecutive 3rd tones, like 老板 (lao2ban3). However I wouldn't outright exclude your first suggestion deng2deng0, as it might be pronounced like that in fast speech, or in the middle of a sentence.


3

This is a difficult problem to address, because 等等 apparently fits one of the criteria for neutral tone, but at the same time there is tone sandhi for two conjoint third-tone words. The following attempts to resolve the conflict between the two rules: The pronunciation of 33 words In my explanation below, I use 1 through 4 to indicate the first to fourth ...


3

It is called 隔音符號 (lit. symbol for sound segregation). When you group pinyin syllables by word, sometimes confusion may arise. With fángài, do you mean fán gài or fáng ài? An apostrophe is needed before syllables that begin with a, o, or e to avoid confusion (because they have a silent initial, i.e. 零聲母). So if you write fángài, you only mean fán gài (there ...


3

The year 2021 is indeed read as "er ling er yi nian (二零二一年)", or even just "er ling er yi (二零二一)." The conversational way that you read the year 2000 when you are referring to the specific year is "er ling ling ling nian (二零零零年)", or even just "er ling ling ling (二零零零)." You can also read it as "liang qian nian (...


3

As r13 duly mentioned, the expression 小打小鬧 is not an idiom with four consecutive third tones as you asserted. Only the first three (小打小) possess the third tone, while 鬧 is definitely in the fourth tone. I would say when it comes to tone sandhi, correct parsing is way more important than considering if the expression is "fixed" or not. You need to ...


3

Because in 廣韻 (a Chinese rime dictionary from 1000 years ago), 車 has two different pronunciations, 1: kio and 2: chja. As time goes by, 1 becomes ju and 2 becomes che. In ancient Chinese, 1(ju) refers to combat vehicles, 2(che) indicates the means of transport for carrying heavy objects. Although these two different meanings are now included in 2, but the ...


3

This is a very common issue, you are not alone. I'd like to share a tip that has helped many students of mine. It involves an interjection you likely are familiar with. It's useless to just write here the interjection "uh-huh". You need to hear what I mean, so here you are 1) a short clip from Futurama and 2) my recording of the interjection ...


2

Yes there are Hakka varieties that have palatalised 佢 and other former velars in front of front vowels, specifically in various Hakka varieties of Jiangxi and Hunan (寧龍片, 于信片/雩桂片 and 銅鼓片/銅桂片). Without context, it is rather difficult to determine the tone category of the phonetic "51". But I shall assume it is a 陽平 tone. A list of pronunciations for ...


2

(I'm a native Chinese user.) Any language has its own pattern of intonation and stress variations over a single sentence or many sentences - this is not exclusive to Chinese. Think about English for example (or any other language you know). I don't think such intonation and stress variations (except for the tones of each Chinese character) should be learned ...


2

(This was originally a part of my answer on another question concerning tone sandhi AND neutral tones. I feel my explanation below on just tone sandhi befits here more. Consider this a slight extension to the accepted answer.) The pronunciation of words consisting of more than two adjacent third-tone characters depends on correct parsing. E.g. 1 老/總統 333 >...


2

L Parker's answer gives a very good, authoritative description of cases when it is possible to use either the citation tone or the neutral tone, and where making this distinction is related to some sort of linguistic difference (meaning, parts of speech, tone of voice, regional variation…). I think it could be useful to share a list of some words which I ...


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