亞洲 (亚洲) is short for 亞細亞洲 (亚细亚洲, Asia) which can be found as early as 坤輿萬國全圖 published in 1602 (萬曆三十年) , mainly by Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci or 利瑪竇 (Lì Mǎdòu), 6 Oct 1552 - 11 May 1610, who is believed to coin this transliteration into Chinese characters.
非洲 is from 阿非利加洲 (Africa). The above work, however, gives a different name for Africa: 利未亞 (...
Yes and no. It's a very broad subject as there are many different varieties of spoken Chinese, there are different methods of transliteration, and the rules themselves have been in flux at various times in history.
I'll just address your examples, but realise that there are many more cases and rules not covered.
Australia : 澳大利亚 ( Àodàlìyǎ )
This name ...
Chih-Hao Tsai's Technology Page is an excellent resource (with the caveat that the corpuses it uses are Taiwanese). On this page you can find frequencies of the most common characters used in surnames and given names.
Most common surnames (2012):
It's clear that this is from a Taiwanese source since 陳 is ...
After some research into this I found this website: http://docs.bosonnlp.com/ner.html. If you set up an account on their website, you can use their NER functionality (because you need an API Token. I tried their Python example
NER_URL = 'http://api.bosonnlp.com/ner/analysis'
s = ['对于该小孩是不是郑尚金的孩子，目前已做亲子鉴定，结果还没出来，'
It is okay to say Macbook Air in between Chinese, or you can say 苹果的Air电脑 or 苹果的Air系列电脑 if you must. More info:
It seems that mainland Chinese are adapting 电脑, but I want to point out both 電腦(traditional Chinese) and 计算机(simplified Chinese) means "computer". 電腦 is used everywhere while 计算机 is only for formal use in mainland China. (計算機/计算机 can mean "...
Taiwan, traditional characters, csv
外国地名译名手册 / Mainland
Mainland, simplified characters, but can only find scanned copies online
I'm a Chinese high school student, I knew someone who has a 垚 in her name.
垚 is often used in the belief that if someone is lack of "earth" in the "five elements" (metal金, wood木, water水, fire火 and earth土), it is good to add more 土 to his/her name.
淼，炎，森，鑫 are often used for the same reason.
short answer: 铖 and 曌
the detailed answer: these charactors were created and used for Emperors only.
you should 'baidu' for the keywords "只能用在名字中的字"
some answer in Chinese:
"铖"有只能用于人名的可能。 在明朝的时候，朱元璋规定他的子孙起名时都得按照金木水火土的顺序带偏旁，刚开始倒没什么，但时间一长就出了问题。因为当时起名字的时候也得避讳长辈的名字，这样一来，没过几代，明朝皇室的人就没法起名字了。 为了解决这个问题，当时就有人专门造了一些字，就是给皇家人员起名字用。这些字都是带金木水火土偏旁的，铖是金字旁，...
This phrase is invented by European， east means east from Europe，so the 中东 means middle east from Europe，that is Iraq and some countries ……
There is some other words like 中东，eg，近东（seldom used），远东（referred to Korea,the area between China and Japan.),
远东 is more often replaced by “东亚”。