Although 清 can be transliterated as chin, it does not seem to be the reason.
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew.
The Postal Map name of the city was (note: should be "is") "Chinchew", a variant of Chincheo, the Portuguese and Spanish transcription of Chiāng-chiu.
It is uncertain when or why British sailors first applied the name to ...
Tung river is the translation of 銅河, it's called 大渡河 (Dadu river) now.
On page 127 of the "to the snows of tibet through china", it was written:
. . . Lu-ting-chiao, which is built on both banks of the Tung River, . . .
Well, Lu-ting-chiao is 瀘定橋.
BTW, there's a map on page 353, you may compare it with other source :)
Another interesting book about ...
Yes, there was such an attempt during the Yuan dynasty. The 'Phags-pa script was created for writing languages that were under control of Yuan, including Chinese:
The 'Phags-pa script (Mongolian: дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, ...
Specifically for Zhuyin Fuhao they add "ㄦ" as an erhua marker after the Zhuyin tone mark of the erhua-ized syllable e.g. 电影儿 is transcribed "ㄉㄧㄢˋㄧㄥˇㄦ". Usually this ㄦ is added with no tone mark (which in Zhuyin otherwise marks first tone) but some dictionaries will instead mark ㄦ with a neutral tone marker i.e. "ㄦ˙" instead. Note that the full syllable 儿 ...
Origin of Pinyin characters
Pinyin inherits many of its orthographic choices from earlier romanisations of Chinese, namely the Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Latinxua Sin Wenz (and zhuyin for diacritics).
The b/p, d/t, g/k distinction for aspirated/unaspirated consonants is inherited from this, and was likely chosen by analogy to them being voiced/unvoiced.1
The other ...
Hong Kong using Standard Written Chinese instead of Written Cantonese because Standard Written Chinese (SWC) is the national standard. Most non-Cantonese speakers might not understand Written Cantonese
English: "I hate him very much"
Standard Written Chinese: "我很討厭他"
Written Cantonese: "我好憎佢"
According to David Prager Branner (林德威) in A Guide to Gwoyeu Romatzyh Tonal Spelling of Chinese it is just an ad hoc rule:
The name of the city of Rome and words derived from it are to be spelled "Roma", even though they are pronounced (and ought to be spelled) Luomaa. Hence the name of this system of Romanization is spelled Romatzyh, not *Luomaatzyh.
Chinese names are written (in Chinese) in the following order:
surname given name
In non-Chinese contexts, such as a database of mixed-nationality names, all names (Chinese or not) should follow the order given by the target language.
Taking one of the examples, Lu Xiaojun vs. Xiaojun Lu, the Chinese name order is Lu Xiaojun (surname, then given name), while ...
the internet archive has a copy of the book "the city of springs: or, mission work in chinchew", which is published in the year 1902:
on page 25, it stated:
The name Chinchew, now so familiar to us, is merely an anglicised
form of Tsuien-chow, being the northern or mandarin ...
The closest thing to what you are describing is found in predictive input pinyin keyboards. Sometimes if I hear something I'm unfamiliar with I'll try typing it into my computer or phone keyboard to see what the predictive text suggests.
There is no perfect mechanical way, though. There are multiple levels of problems:
Word boundaries in Chinese ...
I'm wondering if there is any way to write Chinese characters using the Latin alphabet (a-zA-Z) with/without accents of any sort, and then convert it into Chinese characters. Even if it is considered a bad idea for a new learner, I would still like to know if it is possible in any way.
Every Chinese character is associated with Unicode identification ...
Refer to Mahjong In The West
I think it is just a translation problem.
In the old times, romanisation in Chinese Language like Cantonese Romanisation is not really common, like in this case, Mahjong might be translated from the Wu Dialect or Northern Chinese Language, I'm not sure about that.
You might also refer to this The Mahjong Origin
I hope I did ...
我是2002年生的 or 我是2002年来的
Your second "nian" in the first sentence may be sheng (生，meaning born) or lai (来，meaning came)
I agree with songyuanyao that "DL" may very well be "di". "Di San ju" is "第三句" which means "the third sentence"
Confucius is a latin transliteration as opposed to an English one. Etymology might be a good starting point: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Confucius
This article is probably highly relevant: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesuit_China_missions
Further reading: http://www.amazon.com/WINDOWS-INTO-CHINA-JESUITS-1580-1730/dp/B000ID3EIE