The Unicode standard put one character into one code point, but the character can be written differently in simplified Chinese, traditional Chinese, Japanese or Korean(oh, they don't use characters now, only Hangul). From the Unicode website, you can download a list of all characters, with their origin local standard and shape. A example for character "直" is ...
We (professional translators) generally check accepted sources such as official government publications from the government involved. We may take versions in a language that is not the native or strongest language for that country with a grain of salt, but often we have to accept them even if they sound bad. Remember that a translation being "official" has ...
This is a difficult question, before answering, let's have an understanding on what is a stylistic device. From Wikipedia:
In literature and writing, Stylistic Elements are the use of any of a
variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling
to the literal or written.
As you probably already know, 您 is the polite way of ...
Mixing 您 and 你 is a bad practice. I am not aware of any fashionable usage of the mix, not even in net-speak. Your example is just loosely reviewed.
One rare case where you may see both words in one dialog is when the speaker uses 您 for the listener while uses 你 as a reference to a general 2nd person (similar to "one" in English). In this case 您 and 你 refer ...
Unlike English, （简）优先／（繁）優先 is an adjective while （简）优先级／（繁）優先級 is a noun.
If you want to use an adjective then the expression will be like
You may notice a small difference in meaning, the first one is often used as response or a single sentence. The second is NOT very ...
To answer the queries directly:
Are all of these different styles of the same characters used in China
as well, or are they specific to Japan? Is it important for me to
learn about them (i.e. learn both shapes of 令 or 直)? Note that
Traditional Chinese fonts (like MingLiu) will often have different
versions from Simplified Chinese ones for the same ...
Characters in the first image are the same(same meaning, same pronunciation). They are variants(we call them 异体字,异:different, 体 body, form, 字: character) of the same character, however, Japan and China select different form as standard form. On the computer, using the proper fonts will solve this problem.
Read this wiki article to find more such variants.
Like for any other language, I think it depends a lot on the translator's skills. The dictionary or reference book cannot "know" what the diplomat intended to say. Only the translator can know, based on the context, the diplomat's personality, etc. Not sure a book could help here.
As a IF sentence, if we omit not only 假使/假如/如果/要是 but also 就, sometimes it can become hard to be understood. For example (bad one):
明天下雨，不去了。(If it rains tomorrow, we will not take the road.)
But if we add 假使/假如/如果/要是 or 就, it would sound ...
被逮 could be considered as a short version of 被逮住， meaning 被抓住; be caught; For example, 我被老师逮（住）了， 我考试作弊被逮了(I was caught for cheating in the exam), 他被逮了个正着(meaning he was just caught while he was doing something bad).
However, 被逮 usually is not that formal as 被逮捕 or 被捕. It's not a good idea to use it in a serious/formal writing, like in a report.
I suppose 被逮 in 这名女大学生...被逮。 is a typo, for the meaning of arrest it should be 这名女大学生...被逮捕。. And 被捕 could be used too, i.e. 这名女大学生...被捕。
In 被捕女大学生, 被捕 is used for qualifying the noun 女大学生. 被逮捕 could be used too as 被逮捕的女大学生.
does that kind of convention exist in Mandarin as well?
I'll say yes, if for same context. But for this case, the application ...