If you compare Chinese with English, you will find a lot differences and similarities. Similarities may help you learn Chinese a little bit easily, while differences are the things you need to keep in mind and to get used to.
Here are the ways how English/Chinese sentences are constructed.
English: Letters ----------------- Words ---- Sentences
This is a good question.
字了一 should be understood as:
(and his) 字 (is) 了一
Thousands years ago, many people in China have a special name besides their first name and last name though nowadays most of Chinese don't have one. And this special name is often described after '字'. For example: 刘备，字玄德.
According to some reference in Chinese, 字 sometimes can ...
In this situation, I would say "您先请", which works fine.
"您先请" means 'after you', which is very polite.
If you really want to say 'Please, go in front of me' in Chinese, you could say "请走在我前面吧". However, this sounds a little bit strange. Note that you stand in a queue, you don't go in a queue. So "请站在我前面吧" is better.
Both A也好, B也好 and A也罢, B也罢 construction mean "whether A or B". It is usually spoken to show indifference when faced with two options or when the choice really doesn't matter. The explanation from 汉典 says the following:
When used together, ...
表字： Chinese style name; courtesy name (a name traditionally given to Chinese males at the age of 20 (also called 字))
下来 puts an emphasis on the fact that the action is completed.
雨停下来了。The rain (has) stopped. （It's over, it's not raining anymore).
我们把休假的地方决定下来了。We have decided where to go on holiday. (The decision is completed, it's done/settled)
他慌乱平静下来了。His frenzy calmed DOWN. (May be this is the closest example in English where we use the same directional complement. ...
My go-to is usually 百度 Bai Du:
It means: but （not）；yet （not）；and；as well as；
Out of all of the examples there, I only found a couple where it precedes the verb:
我愿意为什么**而** [VERB: 牺牲] 呢？
What am I willing to sacrifice?
你原是为永恒**而** [VERB: 造]。
You were made to last forever.
而 here, as you can see from the translation, can mean "to" as an infinitive (...
Yes, 都 can refer to either subject or objects.
When subject is plural, 都 refer to "all" of the subject.
你们都来嘛？Are all of you coming?
同学们都交按时交了作业。 All of the students in the class handed in their homework in time.
When subject is single, and object is plural, then 都 refers to "all" of the object.
你把糖果都吃了？ Did you eat ...
This infix -起-来 is usually considered a variation of the suffix -起来, and analysed as having an inceptive aspect, also called the inchoative aspect. The sense that it produces is "starting to do", "to begin to" etc.
起来 often interacts with 了 to form a particular viewpoint of an "accomplishment" action as having starting in the past, with the focus on the ...
大约 means "approximately", 差不多 means "almost".
大约 is normally used as an adjective or adverb in phrases like:
snow that is approximately 4 feet thick
差不多 can be used in a similar way, but it's more commonly used as an adjective-verb:
these two books' contents are about the same
However, 这两本书的内容都差不多一样 (with 差不多 as an adverb) means the ...
for meaning change due to 起来 following verb see any dictionary e。g。HSK dictionary （汉语水平考试词典）
In cases shown above verb is a 离合词 which just means that 起来 also is separated，but does not seem to change the generally valid effect of adding 起来 following verb。
起来（５）用在动词后面，表示动作完成，并有聚拢，合并在一起的意思 indicate gathering together or closing）：国家终于统一～了｜他把钱都藏～了
Chinese do have mishearing issue, because of the limited pronunciation and tones.
The classic example may be all foreigners know when they were starting to learn Chinese tones is:
请问shui jiao 多少钱一 wan ？
If foreigners don't pay attention to the tones, It could be: 请问水饺多少钱一碗？(How much for one bow of dumplings, please?), or 请问睡觉多少钱一晚？(How much for ...
"There aren't people I can talk to"
The translation varies, depending on what word is used to translate "talk to".
"说话", to get into a conversation
"倾诉", to pour out one's feelings
With "倾诉对象", the sentence is starting to become idiomatic. Other variants are also possible. For example, you can ...
The words 'who' in this sentence is called 'relative pronoun', the clause introduced by which is called 'relative clause'.
A sentence with more than one relative clause is said to contain 'nested relative clauses'. The nesting structure in your sentence is:
The man, who kissed (the woman, who betrayed him with (the man, who loved (the one, whom nobody ...
A predicate, by definition, is the whole verb phrase following the subject. You are calling verbs predicates which probably is incorrect.
Time phrase and place phrase are nothing special, they are just verb modifiers. IMO they don't belong to grammatical analysis.
indicating success， cf。实用现代汉语语法 ５５５页 （下面所有文字都关于＂下来＂）
５。结果意义（denoting result）（三）：表示完成一件费时、费力、需要克服一定困难的动作行为 （expressing completion of some time consuming，strenuous activity involving certain difficulties）
因此有某些使用者建议把＂把这些书买下来＂翻译成＂manage to buy these books＂。
it seems this meaning may also apply to 2 of ...
Obviously, this is a tricky one.
I know these three phrases have some same words and looks no differences for foreigner, but they are very different! If I give you one example for each phrase, you still will get confused when you meet a different one, so I'm gonna show you how to fishing instead of just give you a fish, in another word, master those three '...
There are wordplay in every language, Chinese is no exception.
"Raining day make the guest stay, although heaven keeps the guest, the host does not."
"Raining day, a day to keep the guest. Do you keep the guest ?"
From Steven Chow's movies-
西人，狠樣 ( can't explain here because these ...
你有想要买什么吗. It sounds more like Taiwanese usage of 有 to my ear. I found they often put 有 between subject and verb. E.g. 我有去过；我有看过；where I often just say 我去过；我看过. In this case, I'll probably say 你想要买什么? or 你想要买什么(东西)吗?.
This is how I read this passage:
[If] you/公 use (行) this (之; read it as 此) strategem (計), this (是) inevitably [shows] (其; read it as 乃 or 然) to (於) the lord (主) pause (也) great loyalty (至忠) ! (矣)
Using this strategem is a display of [your] loyalty/devotion towards the lord.
The verse is from 戰國策 卷二十八:
Though the OP asked one particular verse, and we must comprehend the related text (from page 80-82), in order to interpret it correctly.
整 should be used after the measure word, so 三百八整人 is not correct.
However, 三百八人整 is weird too. 整 is usually used at the end of the phrase to prevent from adding new numbers to change the whole meaning, especially in financial affairs. Such as
三元 -> you can change it to 三元五角八分
三元整 -> you can't change it to 三元整五角八分, which is wrong expression.
This is more of an aesthetic / rhythmic issue than a grammatical one. Technically you can keep adding 的 to make a chain as long as you like, but it won't be "nice". It's like saying "that" repeatedly in English, e.g. "the man that ate a dog that ate a fly that watched a cat that liked to browse stack exchange." Grammatically valid but not natural.
(Adapted from Linguistics answer I gave)
Translating sentences like these can be problematic because you can't leave dangling prepositions. It used to really bother me because it wasn't hit on by grammar books, it's hard to google, and it can be difficult to convey to a person that "I want a general strategy for translating these kinds of sentences" and are ...
In addition, some Chinese word which contains 'repeated' characters has related with the single character, but the word has more implicated. The common way of implication is about space or time.
天 means day, 天天 means day after day, so we use it to express 'everyday'.
远 means far, 远远 means faraway