I am glad to see this interesting question. The omission is really one of the most confusing but fascinating parts of the Chinese language. My explanation would be almost similar to your first one.
There are two omissions in this example. One is the omission of the subject. The other is the omission of the verb.
Except for the price,...
I am trying to give two differences between 再 and 又 for you.
Originally, 再 means 'second time', 又 means 'second time', or 'third time', or even more. But now, 再 sometimes also means repeatedly. In this sense, the two words,再，又, are replaceable.
再 emphasizes the two concepts (verbs/nouns) must be the same nature, while 又 is not limited.
The more ...
The same structure exists in Chinese
Jenny (is) Jenny --> 珍妮(就是)珍妮
Money (is) money --> 錢(就是)錢
She's (not being/ not like) herself today --> 她今天(不是/ 不像是)她本人
Silver and coin (was not) the first currency --> 錢銀(不是)最初的貨幣
This amount of money (is not/ is not counted as) money to me --> 這數目的錢對我來說(不是/不算是)錢
(Are) they them? --> '他們'...
"More people have been to Russia than I have" doesn't make sense in English, therefore, it wouldn't make sense in Chinese neither.
(2)-(4) would not be considered grammatical by native Chinese speakers at all.
"Many people have been to Russia more than I have" (有很多去俄羅斯比我去得多的人 ) does make sense.
As for 病句 (ill sentences), some people do ...
I just realized my interpretation 1 is correct. An example from Expressing "except" and "in addition" with "chule… yiwai":
Chúle jiàgé yǐwài, qítā fāngmiàn wǒmen dōu hěn mǎnyì.
We're satisfied with all aspects except for the price
where the subject 我们 is explicit, 其他方面...都 (all other aspects) is the topic ...
二百七路 sounds like a bus route number. That would make it a noun
的 is acting as the preposition 'of' in this context. It connects the quantity complement "四十五分钟" to the noun 二百七路 (45 minutes of route 207)
[坐] [四十五分钟] [的] [二百七路]
[ride] [45 minutes] [of] [route 207 (bus)]
Example of quantity complement complements verb:
坐 (v) 四十五分钟 (quantity ...
Yes. 表达 isn't a VO, it can't be split like you're trying to split it.
No. 表 isn't used by itself as a verb like that.
Also you could just opt for something much simpler like: 已经说得很清楚, rather than the mouthful that your current sentence would become.
Because you could insert more in your sentence is not proof that it was omitted.
The sentence is fine as is.
Apart from not having a lift, everything else is very satisfactory.
Apart from not having a lift, all is good.
What you are talking about is 'everything' = 都 = all'
Apart from the price, everything else is ...
"可以便宜吗？" = "Can it be cheap?"
"可以便宜一点儿吗？" = "Can it be cheaper?"
"可以(更)便宜一点儿吗？" = "Can it be cheaper (more)?" -- compare to cheaper price
可以(再)便宜一点儿吗？ = Can it be cheaper (again) -- repeat 'the action be cheaper
It may be easier to understand with different phrasing:
"可以便宜一点儿吗？" = "...
I don't get the meaning of syntactic structure but I guess yes there is equivalent in Chinese:
(1) Jenny 就是 Jenny
(2) 你/她不太像你/她(it's not that like you/she)
(4) 他是我，她是你（but we would probaly say 他演我，她演你）
As explained in other answers, 的 in 坐四十五分钟的二百七路[sic, 1] is customary and frequently used. However, as a native speaker, I don't find it "mandatory" as you said. The following sounds fine to me:
1: the notation of "二百七路" feels rather unorthodox to me. At least in where I live, if you mean 207, it is usually called 二零七(路), or rarely,...
I'll proceed to dissect the clause 坐四十五分钟的二百七路 using systemic grammar:
坐 四十五分钟 的 二百七路
2. \P/ \---------Object---------/ P: Predicator
3. \Modifier/ 的 \Head/
The clause can be analyzed using 3 levels.
As you can see, the object in this clause if constructed using the Modifier-的-...
I don't think there are any clauses. Both of them are verbs. The different tones express different emotions.
If you say "xiǎng xiǎng", you are emphasizing you are pondering. So you pronounce with stress. For instance, you are quarrelling with someone, and you said "Shut up! Let me think about it!"
And if you say "xiáng xiǎng", most of the time you are ...
I will go to military-school soon.
I will go to military-school within the next week. (Sounds a bit strange)
I will go to military-school within a week.
I will go to military-school once I have finished studying.
(If you are going on to military school, you haven't finished studying!)
After I graduate, I will go the military academy ...