I am glad to see this interesting question. The omission is really one of the most confusing but fascinating parts of the Chinese language. My explanation would be almost similar to your first one.
There are two omissions in this example. One is the omission of the subject. The other is the omission of the verb.
Except for the price,...
It is not acceptable to break up 100 to 1 00 in any language
line break between 一百 is acceptable, but from a graphic designer's standpoint, it doesn't look professional
breaking up non-digit/non-Chinese characters. Such as "Steam" with a line break is also unacceptable
in classical chinese, the structure “以” + one character + “之” could be interpreted in multiple ways.
in the analects (論語), chapter 為政:
confucius said (子曰): “the book of odes” (詩三百), in one verse, (一言) for (以) summarising (蔽) it (之) ; [which] is (曰): think (思) without (無) depravation (邪)
that, “it” referred back to “the book of odes”
The same structure exists in Chinese
Jenny (is) Jenny --> 珍妮(就是)珍妮
Money (is) money --> 錢(就是)錢
She's (not being/ not like) herself today --> 她今天(不是/ 不像是)她本人
Silver and coin (was not) the first currency --> 錢銀(不是)最初的貨幣
This amount of money (is not/ is not counted as) money to me --> 這數目的錢對我來說(不是/不算是)錢
(Are) they them? --> '他們'...
"More people have been to Russia than I have" doesn't make sense in English, therefore, it wouldn't make sense in Chinese neither.
(2)-(4) would not be considered grammatical by native Chinese speakers at all.
"Many people have been to Russia more than I have" (有很多去俄羅斯比我去得多的人 ) does make sense.
As for 病句 (ill sentences), some people do ...
In your example,
with 去, it adds a bit emotion here. It sounds like that doing those things is extra miles. Without it, it doesn't have that connotation.
This dictionary definition addresses the use of 去.
（用在另一动词前， 表示要做某事）(preceding another verb, denoting will do):
Please go and ask.
We'll find a way out ourselves.
去 means 'go'. It can function as a verb particle that denotes the initiation of a verb. Similar to 'go' in 'go kill people' in English
我當教師 = I being a teacher
我去當教師 = I go and (begin to) be a teacher
因窮而犯法 = break the law because you are poor
因窮而去犯法 = go and (start to) break the law because you are poor
很多时候，我们不得不做一些自己不愿意做 = We often do ...
二百七路 sounds like a bus route number. That would make it a noun
的 is acting as the preposition 'of' in this context. It connects the quantity complement "四十五分钟" to the noun 二百七路 (45 minutes of route 207)
[坐] [四十五分钟] [的] [二百七路]
[ride] [45 minutes] [of] [route 207 (bus)]
Example of quantity complement complements verb:
坐 (v) 四十五分钟 (quantity ...
車水馬龍 - prosperous and bustling [street|city|or...].
熟能生巧 - practice makes perfect.
突飛猛進 - make astounding advances.
一日千里 - similar to 突飛猛進.
刮目相看 - to view someone in a new ...
From syntax point of view, how do you know when the chengyu can be adverb or adjective or some thing else?
For starters, even individual words in Mandarin often can't be confined to a single part of speech. Take for instance the word 教. This word can be considered both a verb and a noun (the action "to teach" and the noun "teachings" ...
Because you could insert more in your sentence is not proof that it was omitted.
The sentence is fine as is.
Apart from not having a lift, everything else is very satisfactory.
Apart from not having a lift, all is good.
What you are talking about is 'everything' = 都 = all'
Apart from the price, everything else is ...
Idioms are not all the same. As you've already found out idioms can function in all part of a speech (verb, adj, adv, relative clause, and so on)
In layman's terms, idioms are "common expressions" that can act as many word types and in most case, replacing a whole clause. You don't need to know any idioms to speak fluent Chinese, but you do need to ...
Here is an excerpt from the Wikipedia page for Chengyu:
As such, chéngyǔ are fossilized expressions that use the vocabulary and follow the syntactic rules of Literary Chinese. Consequently, they convey information more compactly than normal vernacular speech or writing. They may contain subject and predicate and act as an independent clause (or even twin ...
In my (long) studies I've never come across a formal definition of "definiteness/indefiniteness" specifically used to describe a grammar rule of Mandarin.
However the phenomenon you are talking about happens in many languages, and can be explained as stressing a certain element of a sentence by means of syntax (i.e. word order).
By rearranging the ...
However, there are times we have to go do something that we hate...
The 去 go here functions in contrast to "hate" in the second part of the sentence.
It shows how much you hate to do it, but also need to do it. So you "go do it" anyway.
"可以便宜吗？" = "Can it be cheap?"
"可以便宜一点儿吗？" = "Can it be cheaper?"
"可以(更)便宜一点儿吗？" = "Can it be cheaper (more)?" -- compare to cheaper price
可以(再)便宜一点儿吗？ = Can it be cheaper (again) -- repeat 'the action be cheaper
It may be easier to understand with different phrasing:
"可以便宜一点儿吗？" = "...
I don't get the meaning of syntactic structure but I guess yes there is equivalent in Chinese:
(1) Jenny 就是 Jenny
(2) 你/她不太像你/她(it's not that like you/she)
(4) 他是我，她是你（but we would probaly say 他演我，她演你）
和/跟 have a few differences in usage:
和/跟 can both mean the conjunction and and the preposition with. When meaning and, 和/跟 is used in almost the exact same places as the English "and". In this meaning, 和/跟 are interchangeable but 跟 is more colloquial and informal than 和. Thus, the usage of 跟 should be a lot less frequent when meaning "and&...
和 and 跟 may have the same grammatical function, when they introduce a verbal company complement, occurring before the verb. Then both are prepositions. Even more so, in the linked Zdic entries, both of them are respectively used to define the other:
In that case, they both describe together with whom the action occurs ...
I just realized my interpretation 1 is correct. An example from Expressing "except" and "in addition" with "chule… yiwai":
Chúle jiàgé yǐwài, qítā fāngmiàn wǒmen dōu hěn mǎnyì.
We're satisfied with all aspects except for the price
where the subject 我们 is explicit, 其他方面...都 (all other aspects) is the topic ...
As explained in other answers, 的 in 坐四十五分钟的二百七路[sic, 1] is customary and frequently used. However, as a native speaker, I don't find it "mandatory" as you said. The following sounds fine to me:
1: the notation of "二百七路" feels rather unorthodox to me. At least in where I live, if you mean 207, it is usually called 二零七(路), or rarely,...
I'll proceed to dissect the clause 坐四十五分钟的二百七路 using systemic grammar:
坐 四十五分钟 的 二百七路
2. \P/ \---------Object---------/ P: Predicator
3. \Modifier/ 的 \Head/
The clause can be analyzed using 3 levels.
As you can see, the object in this clause if constructed using the Modifier-的-...
I don't think there are any clauses. Both of them are verbs. The different tones express different emotions.
If you say "xiǎng xiǎng", you are emphasizing you are pondering. So you pronounce with stress. For instance, you are quarrelling with someone, and you said "Shut up! Let me think about it!"
And if you say "xiáng xiǎng", most of the time you are ...
I will go to military-school soon.
I will go to military-school within the next week. (Sounds a bit strange)
I will go to military-school within a week.
I will go to military-school once I have finished studying.
(If you are going on to military school, you haven't finished studying!)
After I graduate, I will go the military academy ...