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These terms were devised in the late 20th century analysis of Classical Japanese, originally, for the difference between -(さ)す (glossed as externally instigated) and -(ら)る (glossed as internally instigated). This exoactive vs endoactive reflects 18th century Japanese use of 他動詞 vs 自動詞 (tadoushi vs jidoushi). In more traditional Western-orientated linguistic ...


13

Tl;dr: make sure you understand the difference between form (形), sound (音), and meaning (義). Some terms are also avoided in Chinese SE. Syllable is a terminology of sound. In Chinese, the overwhelming majority of characters is monosyllabic, which is why the first two named columns are essentially identical. This is in stark contrast to Japanese for instance,...


7

On p. 43 of ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese By Axel Schuessler we have the following introduction: which is later expound on: On p. 44 we find the exact example that you are asking about: It also comes with an explanation: There is a little explanation also here: [...] endoactive (introvert) verbs also can be tr. like mai 'to buy (something)',...


7

For the same reason that it is called tuberculosis in English, from New Latin: tuberculum + -osis The term is a medical coinage of the 1830s (with the cognate first appearing in German medical publications). The English equivalent tubercle is a reference to the appearance of the lung tissue post mortem: white nodules, looking like tiny tubers, and with a ...


6

The position is called: 平板撑 ping2 ban3 cheng1 平板 meaning literally "plank", or "slab", and 撑 standing for 支撑 "to prop up". The longer form 平板支撑 is also common. About the verb "how to do" a plank, that would be simply 做 but also 完成 might be fine. 如何完成平板支撑 How to do/complete planks


6

結果補語的「虛」與「實」 漢語動結式(又稱黏合式述補結構)中有一類的補語被稱為「虛化結果補語」,包括「完、好、掉、住、成、著、了、過等」 根據過去的研究,虛化結果補語區別實義結果補語的特點是:皆由實義動詞虛化而來、本身詞匯意義不明顯、語義指向述語、不是動結式的語義中心、主要表示動作事件「完結、結束」等。但是,這些區別特點主要都體現語義層面上,而句法上,無論是對前項動詞的選擇、還是與賓語的搭配,虛化補語與實義補語並無明顯差異 We are familiar with the aspect markers below: 吃(eat) --> 吃了 (eat is a completed action) 吃(eat) --> 吃過 (eat is an experience action) They ...


5

It is called 标准分. Its opposite is called 原始分. 标准分 is the modified score according to the distribution of the score in the class. Its calculation method might be different from curved scores, but the logic is the same. The problem is, in China, modified scores are rarely used. Original scores are used in almost all situations. So the word for the curved score ...


4

It is called or 笔误 or 误笔 (handwriting mistake) or more colloquially "写错笔划" (write a wrong stroke) 写多笔划或是写少笔划都是笔误 俗语: "误将冯京作马凉" 就是典型的笔误引来的误会 Although 笔误 and 误笔 are interchangeable, there's also a term 口误 (slip of the tongue). Therefore, I prefer 笔误 over 误笔


4

I learned move 2, 4, 5 and variants of move 1, 3 from a trainer and dance teacher. My translation will come from or be inspired by her version. She is rather senior. So some of the moves have been known and practiced in China for decades, where I expect the terminology to be more stable and uniform. As well, in China, a unique-ish form of body training ...


4

戏剧(性) This is a good way to express dramatic in Chinese. Wiktionary has the following definitions: 1 (uncountable) drama; dramatic art; theater(performing art) 2 (countable) play; script of a play; piece of theater, work of theater (Classifier: 部 m; 齣/出 m) Here's an except from an article on Zhihu: 最后聊聊Dramatic irony(戏剧讽刺),它是常用的文学、戏剧手法。指在某一情景中,...


4

柱体 is used more in geometry and engineering. It means a column-like body, which can be a square or rectangular column 方柱体, circular column 圓柱体, or any shape of columns. 筒 is a bucket. So 圓筒 is a round bucket or a barrel.


3

It means quick-reaction launch. How I came to this conclusion: The article you linked has some sort of quote from the rocket designer 彭昆雅, whose paragraph of explanation concludes with 大幅缩短了发射链条,提高发射效率和效益。So the purpose of the rocket is to "enormously reduce the launch chain and improve the launch efficiency and effectiveness". To improve the ...


3

虚化 often gets translated as 'grammaticalization'. Example: 我们考察发现虚化和同音假借是连词的主要来源。 We conclude that grammaticalization and loan homonym are the main source of conjunction. Tang Ho's excellent research cleared things up a lot! Well done! But linguists are slippery eels, twisting and turning, persistently vague! I would translate 虚化 here as 'empty'. I can only ...


3

线上: online 引: attract guests 流: customer flow 线上引流: attract customer online with various strategy to increase customer flow


3

In Chinese linguistics, the most common example of 虚化 is the grammaticalization of verbs into verbal suffixes that function as aspect markers. For example: 了, 过, 着. It is an abstraction whereby a verb "empties out" its original lexical meaning and becomes a function word. When it is used with a process (action/event) in a sentence, the ...


3

I guess you wouldn’t refer to the system using the term “grading on the curve” in Chinese. It is more common to refer to the bell curve itself, and then talk about the grade associated with it. Notice how “拉curve” is used in the context of Hong Kong. Code-switching is rather common in Hong Kong, and locals like to use words from both English and Chinese to ...


3

I would just call it 一笔画 (one stroke). Because there are some famous arts are called in this way. Like: 一笔虎: write the character 虎 in one stroke. 一笔龙: write the character 龙 in one stroke. And the Eulerian path is also called 一笔画问题 (the problem of how to draw a graph with one stroke)


3

练 means to practice, so 练功夫 is practicing KungFu, which is correct. 锻炼 literally means 锻造(Forging) and 冶炼(Smelting). Both actions are related to metal production. Most importantly, it means after some processes that are under extremely high temperatures, the quality of the metal is increased. So, usually, 锻炼 means some hardship will be beneficial. Like 锻炼身体(...


3

This is an article introducing the percentages and percentage points from the National Bureau of Statistics: link Thought it did not explicitly say how they would be written, from the last sentence of the article: 从上述资料中,我们可以说:国内生产总值中,第一产业占的比重,1993年比1992年下降3.6个百分点(18.2-21.8=-3.6);但不能说下降3.6%。 We can see that for perctage point, percentage points would not ...


3

No difference. 后X is a dialect, informal, oral word, 继X is standard, formal words. 后父 is rare, usually, you will see 后爹, 后妈, 继父, 继母.


3

Quantitative Decision Science = 定量化决策科学 CUFE 最优化方法是运筹学(72学时)课程的延续,是一门定量化决策科学,它利用现代数学、计算机以及其它科学的成果建立模型,研究人类从事各种活动中处理事物的数量化规律,使有限的资源得到合理利用,以获得尽可能满意的经济效益和社会效益。 Optimization Method is the continue class of Operations Research. This is a quantitative decision science which builds models to study the quantitative law of people’s activities in order to make ...


3

If grinds mean tutoring/ tuition in this context, we can just simply translate grinds as 补习. If you need to specific, you can say 校外补习 (outside school tutoring) or 私人补习 (private tutoring) I give maths grinds to 3 students. - 我给3名学生做数学补习。 I offered free grinds to my students. - 我向学生提供免费补习。 Giving grinds is good money. - 给人补习的收入不错 Usually, 给人补习 (give ...


3

(圓)柱體: cylindrical object 圓筒: cylinder 圓筒型 = 圓柱型/狀 = cylindrical 圓筒型物體 = 圓柱型/狀物體 = cylindrical object Edit: Only 圓柱體 is a cylindrical object. There are other forms of 柱體 (column shape objects), e.g. 六角柱體 (hexagonal column-shaped objects), 八角柱體 (octagonal column-shaped objects)


3

Chinese do not consider American English a dialect American English = 美式英語 (American style English) or 美國英語 British English = 正宗英語 (Authentic English), 英式英語 (British style English) or 英國英語 Both are English. We Canadian consider our English North American (北美洲) English - the same as 美國英語 American accent = 美國口音 British accent = 英國口音 The difference between ...


3

According to ISO 639, Cantonese, Mandarin, Wu, etc. are languages, and Chinese is a macrolanguage. It is easy and somehow correct to translate dialect <-> 方言, but it is not precisely accurate. As far as Chinese is concerned, those called 方言 today once were languages and sounds like languages more than like dialects. But they share the same writing ...


2

Build means: setup 搭建 compile 编译 Depending on the context: if the server is a Linux distribution, such as Ubuntu or CentOS, build server should be "搭建服务器". if the server is "MySQL" or other databases, we call it "搭建数据库服务器". if the server is Tomcat (a Java application server), we call it "搭建应用服务器" or "搭建后端服务器&...


2

plank means 平板支撑,do a plank we can say 做一组平板支撑


2

It means "to attract traffic". It's a term of online marketing / e-commerce, highlighted also by the terms "线上 = online" and "线下 = offline". 线上引流、线下交易 attract traffic online, convert offline ("convert" as in customer, or lead, conversion) Your understanding, as also others pointed out, is essentially correct, but I ...


2

Don't use 'at the Dragon Boat Festival', that suggests to me a festival in a specific geographical location or place. You could say 'at 5 o'clock' or 'at midnight', because those are specific times. 'At Christmas time' designates a specific time in the year. 在端午节这天,人们都喜欢吃粽子。 During the Dragon Boat Festival, everybody likes munching Zongzi. or On the day of ...


2

for architrave, it’s “楣樑” (門框上方橫接的承重小樑). strips of thin, moulded wood to cover this gap try “門框飾邊“, “門框飾板” or “門框飾條“ have fun :)


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