柱体 is used more in geometry and engineering. It means a column-like body, which can be a square or rectangular column 方柱体, circular column 圓柱体, or any shape of columns.
筒 is a bucket. So 圓筒 is a round bucket or a barrel.
(圓)柱體: cylindrical object
圓筒型 = 圓柱型/狀 = cylindrical
圓筒型物體 = 圓柱型/狀物體 = cylindrical object
Only 圓柱體 is a cylindrical object. There are other forms of 柱體 (column shape objects), e.g. 六角柱體 (hexagonal column-shaped objects), 八角柱體 (octagonal column-shaped objects)