With regards to the word 方言 popularly taken to mean "a dialect", a definition of the word "dialect" is necessary.
A dialect is defined as "A particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group" So, it is a "form of a language", meaning it has a "mother language" and it takes ...
I believe all countries have dialects. Where a dialect stops and a language begins is unclear.
I would say the Central Government of a nation will concern itself with the national language, because it directly binds the people of a nation together.
Thus the notion: "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy."
According to ISO 639, Cantonese, Mandarin, Wu, etc. are languages, and Chinese is a macrolanguage.
It is easy and somehow correct to translate dialect <-> 方言, but it is not precisely accurate.
As far as Chinese is concerned, those called 方言 today once were languages and sounds like languages more than like dialects. But they share the same writing ...
I consider dialect is localized differences in speaking and pronunciation within a country.
While American English differs from British English, it should be considered as the former was a branch of the latter, as both are under the same root, but differences developed due to the separation of social-political systems, therefore a regional differences rather ...
Chinese do not consider American English a dialect
American English = 美式英語 (American style English) or 美國英語
British English = 正宗英語 (Authentic English), 英式英語 (British style English) or 英國英語
Both are English. We Canadian consider our English North American (北美洲) English - the same as 美國英語
American accent = 美國口音
British accent = 英國口音
The difference between ...
Not 100% what you're looking for, but there's a twitter bot called 北京话bot that tweets lots of (what seem to me to be) Beijing colloquialisms.
It gives some explanations of the terms it mentions, in 普通话. Not really a reference but it is quite interesting I think.