From right to left, up to down:
Made during the Jiajing era of Great Ming
大明 is the official name of the Ming dynasty. 嘉靖年 refers to the Jiajing era (1521–67). 製 is a verb meaning 'to make', here it is passive. So assuming this not being a counterfeit, it is from China.
An old character for 明 is 朙 (seen here), which is frequently adopted in seal ...
第一節, 第二節 /jie2/...
Cantonese pronunication /jit3/
Literally a part, or a section of a whole.
课 "lesson" - sounds too much like a class, where a (group of) student(s) learn(s) from a teacher.
会话 "dialogue" - is not the same as a workshop session.
Tl;dr: Your interpreting 息 as 'to cease' is incorrect. 出息 as we know it in modern Chinese is a much derived, figurative meaning.
It is better to parse the word as 沒/出息, i.e. understand 出息 altogether. This is also for the fact that the meaning of 沒 is uncontentious. Also, 息 surely is not a verb meaning 'to cease', because it does not make sense with 出 here. ...
Can I translate grow smaller to 长小？
The verb 'grow (长)' mostly mean 'become older or bigger'
Although 'grow smaller' literally means '长小', but 'grow' in 'grow smaller' actually means 'to develop into'. We translate 'grow smaller' to '变小' (become smaller) to avoid confusing 发展 (grow/ develop/ become) with 生长/ 成長 (grow)
长小 is not acceptable
不 = not
得 = able to
了 = end --> be contained
不得了 (can't be contained): desperately serious; disastrous; extremely; exceedingly
乱堆的木材一着火就不得了 = Once the messily piled up timber caught fire, it (can't be contained) will be disastrous
他的快球这么强，再学会曲线球 就不得了 = His fastball is so strong if he learned curveball he will be (can't be contained) unstoppable
You are exactly right. This means both the first stanza (前阙 or 上阕) and the second stanza (后阙 or 下阙) has three rhymes, each of them a level tone, and the entire poem uses the exact same rhyming set.
I think the main confusion is that ci are not supposed to rhyme in their current dialects: while the poem you quoted (杨慎，《临江仙·滚滚长江东逝水》) is written ...
You are right for the first character.
However, the second character is not 得. It is 禄 and means "official salary". The thrid character, 寿, means "life" or "age".
Combined together, 福禄寿 generally represents fortune or prosperity, high status or position, and longevity. It was originated from 道教 (Taoism). You can find more ...
Most of time, the phrase 以后还得了 is often used for negative connotations. It's along the line of (我们不应该放任不管，不然)以后还得了.
It implies that we should do something/take some measures to stop it developing or it would grow to the degree of being big/serious later.
But in some specific context, it can imply positive, so we need to look into the specific context to ...
没出息. How not ending/ ceasing out become useless?
Look at it the other way around:
有出息：show promise, have promise, should go far
She's got talent and should go far.
So, 没出息：lack of talent, promise or prospects. (Bit like me!!)
The regular script transcription looks like
This is probably an art name
This is probably the artist's real name; also appears on the calligraphy as the last two characters
I cannot find any artists being referred to by these names.
"Buddha-like youngsters/youth" is a loyal translation which has found widespread use in the news. "Buddhist youth" is also found, but without context people may take it literally as youths of the Buddhist religion, which is unideal. I believe you may want to consider the above if translating 佛系青年 as a set phrase.
You may consider ...
The English term "networking" normally means "human relationship" or "human connection", irrelevant to the computer network, but the Chinese term 网络 only means computer network.
To avoid confusions or misunderstandings, we should completely avoid the root word "network" plus a suffix as the translation of 网络化. Use ...