14

I'm not sure where you could get an accurate count for how many there are. Considering that loanwords have been coming into Chinese for thousands of years, it definitely won't be a trivial task. There is certainly quite a few, however, not all of which is current/widespread/universal. I'll list some here, and edit more in if I think of any later: Angel: ...


11

Actually they all came from their pronunciation. America: 美利坚 ("美国" for short) England: 英格兰 ("英国" for short)


10

The term, 婆羅門, has been used in China for at least 1500 years. OLDict lists a few dictionaries. All of them transliterate "Brahman" as "婆羅門". resources: Digital Dictionary of Buddhism 漢藏梵英佛學術語 (pdf format) 梵漢辭典 Digital Dictionary of Buddhism There are some Sanskrit-Chinese translations in 《大正藏》54, which can be downloaded in the pdf format. The script ...


10

The pronunciation of characters was glossed using the Fanqie (反切) system, which uses two existing characters whose pronunciations are known to determine the pronunciation of the unknown character. Suppose that I wanted to know the pronunciation of「東」. Looking this character up, I'd see that it was phonologically glossed in dictionaries as 德紅切, which means ...


10

C for Cristiano 罗 for 罗纳尔多 (Ronaldo) Apparently before him: Ronaldo (罗纳尔多) (Luís Nazário de Lima) was known as 大罗 Ronaldinho (罗纳尔迪尼奥) was called 小罗 So, with big (大) and little (小) already taken, the first letter of his first name was given to him instead. As for 朗 vs. 罗: It seems that 朗 is Cantonese (Hong Kong, Macao) while 罗 is Mandarin (Mainland, ...


9

Based on the pronunciation along, I guess it is 青黄不接 (qing1 huang2 bu4 jie1) 青:green, which means the newly planted still growing wheat this year 黄:yellow, which means the old wheat gathered last year 不接:ends does not meet 青黄不接:the old wheat is almost gone but the new wheat is still growing: there is nothing to eat in the period in between. It generally ...


8

They are not really called beautiful kingdom and hero kingdom. When Chinese come up with phonetic names of foreign things, they try to find a character that come close enough in sound while having a good meaning. Luckily 英 and 美 happen to correspond well with "Eng-" and "-me-" while having suitable meaning. Just like France 法兰西 (法国) has meaning of 法 Law. ...


8

About the "乔" part of "George[dʒɔ:dʒ]", you can find some material in the 译音表(the Form of Ttransliteration). Besides, "奇" should be instead of "治" following the form. However, "约定俗成(the convention)" is one of the important rules of 《英文人名翻译准则》. Everybody often use "乔治" refer to "George", so that "乔治" is agreed upon gradually. Anyway, I don't know why did ...


8

1934年,盛世才召開新疆第二次民眾大會,確定烏孜別克族為正式族名,把國外的烏孜別克族依然寫作烏茲別克。 In 1934, 盛世才 held the second public meeting in Xinjiang, determining 乌孜别克 (wū zī bié kè) as the official ethnic name, and the foreign Uzbek still writing as 乌兹别克. Therefore, 乌孜别克 usually refers to the race in China. But, many people still use 乌兹别克 interchangeably, as shown in the government web page. ...


7

It's just historical stuff. European countries that have commerce with China prior to the Ching dynasty and also modern countries after WWII, in general have fancier names. 希腊 for Greece 意大利 for Italy 瑞典 for Sweden 法国 for France 美国 for US 葡萄牙 for Portugal 马来西亚 for Malaysia 日本 for Japan etc. You just have to accept them as it is. It's hard to find a ...


7

it's 羅綺, in traditional chinese, in Small Seal Script (小篆) the left character is 羅 http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=羅 the right one is 綺 http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=綺 1st, it's in vertical writing, you need to read from top to bottom, from right to left 羅庚香色 ⒓⒐⒌⒈ 綺申似凝 ⒔⒑⒍⒉ 寫春玉瓊 ⒕⒒⒎⒊   京樹   ⒏...


6

It's Mandarin transliteration by Portuguese Jesuit Fr. Inácio da Costa (17th century). Partial text: “大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善” Ta hio chi dao, cai min min te, cai cin min, cai chi yu chi xen


6

Some says that "乔治" is very close to George in Shanghainese (上海話) since Shanghai was the big harbor allows international trades in 17th century. Lots of phrases are created/translated at that time. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Pidgin_English


6

Although it is a potentially valid to use the slightly derogatory "cute" nickname, it is much more likely to be a more standard-sounding given name, for example 佳寧 or perhaps 嘉寧, both pronounced Jiāníng in Mandarin and Gā-nìhng in Cantonese. To my ear, both are female names. A quick Google returns quite a few profiles with this exact given name, ...


6

Haha, funny question. "特朗普" is the official transliteration, used most commonly in official media of China, such as CCTV(新闻联播)and People's Daily(人民日报), while "川普" is more often used in social media or among people's casual talking. "川普" is transliterated based on the pronunciation of "Trump", which is reasonable. However, "特朗普" has been used as the ...


6

imo, "yuan-ti" is a transliteration of chinese, using older scheme of romanisation. the characters represented are "軟體" (a pliable body), quite a good description of "snake-related-monster". the "華英萬字典", printed in 1907, had the entry of "軟" (juan3, jwan) https://archive.org/stream/chineseenglishdi00pole#page/339/mode/1up and, 體 (ti3) https://archive....


6

英国的康桥,如今大部份人都称之为剑桥,这个译法很特别,但是居然 还是被人们接受了。一般来讲,中国人翻译外国的地名大多采用音译, 如“翡冷翠”、“枫丹白露”,都是其中的上乘之作;也有不多的一些 外国地名是采用字面的义译,如“牛津”、“地中海”,可算别具一格, 但鲜有音译和义译混合的。“剑桥”是少见的一例,剑桥的“剑”乃是 “Cam”的音译,“桥”是“Bridge”的义译。由此可以推断, 当初作如此翻译的人士,出身大概总归是在闽粤两地,那里的方言仍然 保留着古汉语的入声,因此才会想到把“Cam”译作“剑”。 《两处康桥的回忆》,维一《域外怀旧录》 Weiyi, the author of this essay thinks, the translator who had translated "...


5

Pronunciation ≠ Spelling! It's very important to distinguish spellings from pronunciations, so I'm using IPA throughout my answer. I don't know how you pronounce "wang" or "wong", but it's very likely that the closest pronunciation available in your dialect of English is neither of them. Chinese pronunciations I'm basing my IPA off of the ...


5

Adding to the previous list: Bowling: 保龄球 bao ling qiu 滾木球 Buffet: 蒲飞 pu fei 自助餐 Calorie: 卡路里 ka lu li 热量单位 Cartoon: 卡通 ka tong 漫画 Motor: 摩托 mo tuo 电动机 Sundae: 新低 xin di 水果奶油,冰淇淋 T-Shirt: T-血 T-xue 短袖汗衫, 短袖圆领衫 Toast: 多士,吐司 duo shi, tu si 烤面包 Vitamin: 维他命 wei ta ming 维生素


5

Yes and no. The characters associated with context-free random toneless pinyin will sometimes impossible to infer with certainty. However, the issue is more about identifying characters which match the pinyin, and not really about the possible tone combinations. Thus, context gives a lot of information as to which characters are appropriate and which are ...


4

Yes, there are preferred characters used in transliteration. But in Chinese the case is a little bit complicated than in Japanese. In Japanese, Katakana is part of the phonetic system of the language (although in written, those characters can be used with Kenji). In Chinese the phonetic system and the writing system are completely separated except in rare ...


4

For the transliteration of each letter into Mandarin Chinese, just follow the list below, written in pinyin with Chinese characters where possible. Some pinyin combinations may not exist in Mandarin at all though, so I will give approximate IPA or English transliterations. A : ei 诶 /ei/ A B : bi 比 /pi/ C*: xi 西 /ɕi/ or /si/ || "sei" /sei/ say D*: di 弟 /ti/ |...


4

For different translations: cement: 水门汀、水泥 Internet: 因特网、互联网 vitamin: 维生素、维他命 Sacramento: 沙加缅度、三个馒头 :P Bourgeoisie: 布尔乔亚、资产阶级 From different languages, actually, there are many, if you count Japanese and Cantonese. Florence: 翡冷翠、佛罗伦萨 (Italian, English) metaphysics:形而上学(日)、玄学(中) evolution: 进化(日)、天演(中) philosophy: 哲学(日)、理学(中) bus: 巴士(粤)、公共汽车(汉) ...


4

Common romanization systems for Cantonese are Jyutping, Cantonese Pinyin, and Yale. In both Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin, tones are represented with numbers. In Yale, tones are either indicated with tone marks coupled with -h, or with numbers: 1 high-flat 55 sī sīn sīk 1 high-fall. 53 sì sìn 2 mid-rising 35 sí sín 3 mid-flat 33 ...


4

AFAIK (I'm a native English speaker) the letter v is never used in English writing to render the sound represented in pinyin by ü. However in software that uses pinyin it is standard practice to use the letter v as an alias for ü. From Wikipedia (link): Since the letter "v" is unused in Mandarin pinyin, it is universally used as an alias for ü. For ...


4

Yes. 瑞 is seoi6 (IPA: /sɵy̯²²/) in Cantonese, and sūi (IPA: /sui²²/) in Hokkien, so is a fairly close match to the French word Suisse and the English name for Sweden. The origin of a lot of translations for smaller Western countries came from the Chinese varieties of the southern ports of Guangzhou (Canton) and Xiamen (Amoy) amongst others. 惹 in some ...


4

For your question, as a native Chinese speaker, I use 法國。 (For illustration purposes, I have below pronunciations in Mandarin for your references. P: Pinyin, I: IPA) There seems to be some categories of way we name countries: Sound and meaning transcription. e.g. 新西蘭 (New Zealand) 新 means new 西蘭 is the sound transcription 美利堅合衆國 (USA) 美利堅 is the sound ...


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