13

I'm not sure where you could get an accurate count for how many there are. Considering that loanwords have been coming into Chinese for thousands of years, it definitely won't be a trivial task. There is certainly quite a few, however, not all of which is current/widespread/universal. I'll list some here, and edit more in if I think of any later: Angel: ...


10

Actually they all came from their pronunciation. America: 美利坚 ("美国" for short) England: 英格兰 ("英国" for short)


10

C for Cristiano 罗 for 罗纳尔多 (Ronaldo) Apparently before him: Ronaldo (罗纳尔多) (Luís Nazário de Lima) was known as 大罗 Ronaldinho (罗纳尔迪尼奥) was called 小罗 So, with big (大) and little (小) already taken, the first letter of his first name was given to him instead. As for 朗 vs. 罗: It seems that 朗 is Cantonese (Hong Kong, Macao) while 罗 is Mandarin (Mainland, ...


9

The term, 婆羅門, has been used in China for at least 1500 years. OLDict lists a few dictionaries. All of them transliterate "Brahman" as "婆羅門". resources: Digital Dictionary of Buddhism 漢藏梵英佛學術語 (pdf format) 梵漢辭典 Digital Dictionary of Buddhism There are some Sanskrit-Chinese translations in 《大正藏》54, which can be downloaded in the pdf format. The script ...


9

The pronunciation of characters was glossed using the Fanqie (反切) system, which uses two existing characters whose pronunciations are known to determine the pronunciation of the unknown character. Suppose that I wanted to know the pronunciation of「東」. Looking this character up, I'd see that it was phonologically glossed in dictionaries as 德紅切, which means ...


8

1934年,盛世才召開新疆第二次民眾大會,確定烏孜別克族為正式族名,把國外的烏孜別克族依然寫作烏茲別克。 In 1934, 盛世才 held the second public meeting in Xinjiang, determining 乌孜别克 (wū zī bié kè) as the official ethnic name, and the foreign Uzbek still writing as 乌兹别克. Therefore, 乌孜别克 usually refers to the race in China. But, many people still use 乌兹别克 interchangeably, as shown in the government web page. ...


7

It's just historical stuff. European countries that have commerce with China prior to the Ching dynasty and also modern countries after WWII, in general have fancier names. 希腊 for Greece 意大利 for Italy 瑞典 for Sweden 法国 for France 美国 for US 葡萄牙 for Portugal 马来西亚 for Malaysia 日本 for Japan etc. You just have to accept them as it is. It's hard to find a ...


7

About the "乔" part of "George[dʒɔ:dʒ]", you can find some material in the 译音表(the Form of Ttransliteration). Besides, "奇" should be instead of "治" following the form. However, "约定俗成(the convention)" is one of the important rules of 《英文人名翻译准则》. Everybody often use "乔治" refer to "George", so that "乔治" is agreed upon gradually. Anyway, I don't know why did ...


7

They are not really called beautiful kingdom and hero kingdom. When Chinese come up with phonetic names of foreign things, they try to find a character that come close enough in sound while having a good meaning. Luckily 英 and 美 happen to correspond well with "Eng-" and "-me-" while having suitable meaning. Just like France 法兰西 (法国) has meaning of 法 Law. ...


6

Some says that "乔治" is very close to George in Shanghainese (上海話) since Shanghai was the big harbor allows international trades in 17th century. Lots of phrases are created/translated at that time. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Pidgin_English


6

Haha, funny question. "特朗普" is the official transliteration, used most commonly in official media of China, such as CCTV(新闻联播)and People's Daily(人民日报), while "川普" is more often used in social media or among people's casual talking. "川普" is transliterated based on the pronunciation of "Trump", which is reasonable. However, "特朗普" has been used as the ...


5

It's Mandarin transliteration by Portuguese Jesuit Fr. Inácio da Costa (17th century). Partial text: “大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善” Ta hio chi dao, cai min min te, cai cin min, cai chi yu chi xen


5

Adding to the previous list: Bowling: 保龄球 bao ling qiu 滾木球 Buffet: 蒲飞 pu fei 自助餐 Calorie: 卡路里 ka lu li 热量单位 Cartoon: 卡通 ka tong 漫画 Motor: 摩托 mo tuo 电动机 Sundae: 新低 xin di 水果奶油,冰淇淋 T-Shirt: T-血 T-xue 短袖汗衫, 短袖圆领衫 Toast: 多士,吐司 duo shi, tu si 烤面包 Vitamin: 维他命 wei ta ming 维生素


5

There're no such character set like Japanese katakana. kana is a kind of phonography, but in Chinese only select similarly pronounced Hanzi(汉字) to transliterate loanword. Such as 沙发(sofa). Of course there're some commonly used idiom for special English pronunciation.


5

Although it is a potentially valid to use the slightly derogatory "cute" nickname, it is much more likely to be a more standard-sounding given name, for example 佳寧 or perhaps 嘉寧, both pronounced Jiāníng in Mandarin and Gā-nìhng in Cantonese. To my ear, both are female names. A quick Google returns quite a few profiles with this exact given name, ...


5

it's 羅綺, in traditional chinese, in Small Seal Script (小篆) the left character is 羅 http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=羅 the right one is 綺 http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=綺 1st, it's in vertical writing, you need to read from top to bottom, from right to left 羅庚香色 ⒓⒐⒌⒈ 綺申似凝 ⒔⒑⒍⒉ 寫春玉瓊 ⒕⒒⒎⒊   京樹   ⒏...


5

In ancient China, there're two ways for phonetic annotation mainly. 读若法 用一个汉字来注另一个汉字的读音方法。(Use a character to annotate another character's pronunciation.) 比如:儡,相败也,……读若雷。(《说文解字》)(e.g. 儡 is pronunciated as 雷.) 反切法 用一个汉字或注音符号表示“声”,用另一个汉字或注音符号表示“韵”和“调”,把它们拼合成被注字的读音的方法。(Combine one character's consonant and another character's vowel to ...


4

Yes, there are preferred characters used in transliteration. But in Chinese the case is a little bit complicated than in Japanese. In Japanese, Katakana is part of the phonetic system of the language (although in written, those characters can be used with Kenji). In Chinese the phonetic system and the writing system are completely separated except in rare ...


4

For different translations: cement: 水门汀、水泥 Internet: 因特网、互联网 vitamin: 维生素、维他命 Sacramento: 沙加缅度、三个馒头 :P Bourgeoisie: 布尔乔亚、资产阶级 From different languages, actually, there are many, if you count Japanese and Cantonese. Florence: 翡冷翠、佛罗伦萨 (Italian, English) metaphysics:形而上学(日)、玄学(中) evolution: 进化(日)、天演(中) philosophy: 哲学(日)、理学(中) bus: 巴士(粤)、公共汽车(汉) ...


4

Common romanization systems for Cantonese are Jyutping, Cantonese Pinyin, and Yale. In both Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin, tones are represented with numbers. In Yale, tones are either indicated with tone marks coupled with -h, or with numbers: 1 high-flat 55 sī sīn sīk 1 high-fall. 53 sì sìn 2 mid-rising 35 sí sín 3 mid-flat 33 ...


4

For the transliteration of each letter into Mandarin Chinese, just follow the list below, written in pinyin with Chinese characters where possible. Some pinyin combinations may not exist in Mandarin at all though, so I will give approximate IPA or English transliterations. A : ei 诶 /ei/ A B : bi 比 /pi/ C*: xi 西 /ɕi/ or /si/ || "sei" /sei/ say D*: di 弟 /ti/ |...


4

AFAIK (I'm a native English speaker) the letter v is never used in English writing to render the sound represented in pinyin by ü. However in software that uses pinyin it is standard practice to use the letter v as an alias for ü. From Wikipedia (link): Since the letter "v" is unused in Mandarin pinyin, it is universally used as an alias for ü. For ...


3

Pronunciation ≠ Spelling! It's very important to distinguish spellings from pronunciations, so I'm using IPA throughout my answer. I don't know how you pronounce "wang" or "wong", but it's very likely that the closest pronunciation available in your dialect of English is neither of them. Chinese pronunciations I'm basing my IPA off of the Wikipedia help ...


3

No, it is not the only one. Unless you think John sounds similar to 约翰. Chinese translations for foreign names and words (such as names of other stuff) are weird if you compare them to each other. People from the cities, Guangzhou, Hong Kong (Speaking Cantonese), and Shanghai (Speaking Wu), which were first open to the world, created these translations ...


3

It seems that "乔治" is the only one. And I think its pronunciation is the nearest one with its English counterpart In Chinese.


3

It's not standard Jyutping, but CantoDict uses the asterisk to indicate a changed tone. In your example, waa6*2, the standard citation tone for 话 is 6, but when pronounced in the word, 广东话, its tone changes to a rising tone, so it is denoted with a *2. A note at the footer of the definition page indicates this convention: Also, CantoDict uses a unique "...


3

imo, "yuan-ti" is a transliteration of chinese, using older scheme of romanisation. the characters represented are "軟體" (a pliable body), quite a good description of "snake-related-monster". the "華英萬字典", printed in 1907, had the entry of "軟" (juan3, jwan) https://archive.org/stream/chineseenglishdi00pole#page/339/mode/1up and, 體 (ti3) https://archive....


2

In fact, there is no meaning of beautiful (美) for America, it is just a name. Think about the name: Mr White, not means that the name is only for white people. We just show our kindness, that we like this country with positive words. When someone doesn't like America, he/she will call America "霉国", the pronounce of "美(mei3)" and "霉(mei2)" are similar. ...


2

Remember that despite having a writing system much more heavily vested in meaning vs pronunciation, Chinese still has a need to transcribe foreign sounds and words. Speakers of European languages tend not to notice this issue as much, because words from other languages can at least be approximated by sound, if not assimilated completely. Chinese does not ...


2

Yes, there are guidelines. We won't get confused in the 什 example because PRC had long contact with Russia, but we may get confused for some unfamiliar countries. Note that this guideline is only made and followed by authors and editors in mainland China. Taiwan and Hong Kong all have their own standards due to divergence in pronounciation. Whatsmore, ...


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