让 is frequently used in speech, usually translated with "to make somebody do something" or "to let". Your other examples illustrate it nicely.
让我想一想 (= let me think a bit)
The most fundamental difference between 让 and 使 is that 使 means basically "cause to", therefore it's used mostly when it refers to inanimate entities or ...
I try to distinct between 你还是不同意吗 and 你还不同意吗.
你还不同意吗 implies (given something aforementioned), you still disagree?
你还是不同意吗 implies (given something aforementioned), your attitude/stance is still no/disagree?
OP already listed their different definitions. They don't seem to be interchangeable at all.
The meaning of 'still' may be the only one where either word-choices can be used in the same sentence, but there's still some subtle differences between them:
Fact 1 + 还 + Fact 2 describes the facts without emphasizing any.
Fact 1 + 还是 + Fact 2 emphasizes the ...
住起在 and 住在起 are both ungrammatical. It is either 住起来(upon living) or 住在(live in). You can write "住在这个房子讓我很不舒服" - " living in this house make me uncomfortable" But you cannot add 起来 to it
起来 = upon
[Verb + 起来] = [upon + verb] -- e.g. 住起在 (upon living)
[Verb + 起来 + adj = [seem/feel + adj + upon + verb] -- e.g. 住起来不舒服 (feel uncomfortable ...
It is a common practice in Chinese to put bigger things in front of smaller things.
In address, 北京市朝阳区, where 朝阳 is a part of 北京-
In dates: 壬申年正月初七日 or 一九九二年二月十日
In people: 全家老小 where 老 elders are in front of 小 children. 公司上下，where 上 means the executives and 下 means workers.
And here in schools: 大中小学
But the rule is not always true when 1, the ...
一下子 = all of a sudden. e.g. 一下子不見了 gone all of a sudden
刹那 is a Buddhism term for a time unit. In one flick of a finger, 60 刹那 would pass
一刹那 = a very brief moment. e.g. 在一刹那間 (in the blink of an eye) = almost instantly
一时 = at the moment/ at the time. e.g. 一时找不到人选 (Can't find a candidate at the moment/ at the time)
一瞬間 (in the time of one glance), 一息間 (in ...
Generally, [讓|令|使] might be interchangeable.
[讓|令|使]他在外面等, e.g. 這場大雨(讓)(令)(使)他在外面枯等了兩小時. We usually don't just say or use 令他在外面等, because 令他在外面等 means you give him an ORDER, stay outside and wait.
[讓]我看一看, [令|使]我看一看 is odd but understandable to native user.
草原 should mean animal agriculture(畜牧業) and any other nature resources related to grassland.
海洋 have similar concept of 草原.
You could use 農林漁牧業 to indicate agriculture,forestry,fishing and animal agriculture industries.
Semantically, 我想 itself connotes a completion already because when you say it you already think about it. So we don't need 了 after 想 for completion. That's why the sentence in title is not correct.
退了 denotes I want the action 退 get done. "Done" is for completion, so we need a 了 after 退.
P. S. I somehow agree with you Chinese ...
前中期 can mean either [early of the middle stage] or [early and middle stages]
中前期 means [middle of the early stage]
大中小学 is the more common way to describe the education system, but it doesn't mean 小中大学 is grammatically wrong
Some orders can be stated backward, for example, 大中細碼都齊全 --> 細中大碼都齊全
[南北][東西] is [東西][南北] in reverse order
I recommend you look for the book Charles N. Li, Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. I found it to be currently one of the best references in English that explain in depth Chinese grammar and that also has a lot of examples. It uses only pinyin, which from your question I think could be an advantage for you. There, they ...
Don't really like （你）还
Maybe this helps a little:
You can return my car anytime. I don't need it today.
You can return my car any time. I don't need it today.
你什么时候回来 （回家、回宾馆）， 都可以。
You can come back (come home, come back to the hotel) anytime.
I will suggest my ideas (probably there are some mistakes, so please point them out). For each case I believe there can be several possibilities.
Verb + Adj :
Adj is an adverb defining or restricting the meaning of the Verb. For example,
Yīgèrén huì zǒu kuài hěnduō, dàn liǎng gè rén hǎoxiàng gèng yǒuqù.
One person walks a lot faster, ...