It's one of those fixed expressions whose otherwise regular meaning is significantly and conspicuously altered by the modal 了, that introduces change semantics.
The phrase 「你怎么（样）～」 in itself means "How do you...?". If you add a modal 了 signifying change, it becomes：
"How do you... now" (as opposed to before)
...which in an idiomatic ...
The premise of the question is a bit backwards. It's not that de evolved into three different characters, it's that three different words evolved to have the same pronunciation in modern Mandarin Chinese.
Mandarin in particular, features unstressed syllables, which are commonly referred to as having a "neutral tone" rather than having one of the four main ...
In Chinese grammar, words as 什么 are commonly known as interrogative substitutes, they substitute the word that should be found in the answer.
Therefore, they have inherent interrogative semantics, and don't require interrogative particles at the end of the sentence.
你在吃什么？What are you eating?
我在吃麻婆豆腐 I'm eating "mapo" tofu.
As you ...
It's just very common for a word to have multiple meanings. An online dictionary gives the five interpretations:
思考, 动脑筋 to think, to consider
让我想一想 = Let me think.
回忆 to remember
我想不起来他昨天说了什么 = I can't remember what he said yesterday.
怀念, 惦记 to miss
我想你 = I miss you.
希望, 打算 to hope/want to do something
我想去旅游 = I want to travel.
预料, 推测 to ...
体贴 (to be considerate) is intransitive, it cannot take a direct object. So you can be "considerate towards your parents" but you cannot "considerate your parents". In a similar vein, you can be "happy for someone" but you cannot "happy someone".
关心 (to be concerned about), on the other hand, is transitive. It can take ...
MTR just shot a three-pointer, told us to ask the government
"射三分波" is obviously a basketball term.
It is not a common term, but a great use of metaphor.
Imagine: The MTR spokesman was surrounded by reporters asking him tough questions, just like a basketball player surrounded by opposing team's guards who wouldn't let him break ...
The definite article has no equivalence in Chinese. Its functions, however, can be found in Chinese.
Something previously mentioned or known
He is a murderer. 他是个杀人犯。(杀人犯 is a murderer, a man that has commited murder. 个 is like the indefinite article.)
He is the murderer.
By using nouns inherently specific.
他就是凶手。(凶手 is the murderer , it ...
Quote from "Chinese an essential grammar":
......, a 把 construction must have an object of definite reference (shifted now to a pre-verbal position directly after 把); a complement of some kind after the verb to
indicate the result achieved by the action of the verb, either intentionally
or unintentionally, on the part of the subject. ......
"Drink" is one possible meaning of 吃. From the Taiwan Ministry of Education dictionary definition for 吃
It also has an entry specifically for 吃酒.
让 is frequently used in speech, usually translated with "to make somebody do something" or "to let". Your other examples illustrate it nicely.
让我想一想 (= let me think a bit)
The most fundamental difference between 让 and 使 is that 使 means basically "cause to", therefore it's used mostly when it refers to inanimate entities or ...
It's totally valid and common to add adverbial modifiers after your main clause.
In conversation, rules are breakable. In writing, there is 倒裝句(Inversion), yeah, that means putting adverbial modifiers at the end of the sentence is grammatically correct, if you follow the inversion rule.
I'm living in Chicago (pause) Well only currently.
我住在芝加哥, 呃, 只是目前
we don't say 你太快说
means you speak too fast
expresses that I want you to speak faster, it's like a request.
你快说 can be used on informal occasions (with your friends or your family). We don't say it to people you are not familiar with, they would think you are being impolite and inpatient.
You can say "你可不可以快点说？“ This sentence is better than ...
I'd take 今天我起床很早 as the shorthand of 今天我起床起得很早.
To me, 今天我起床很早 isn't my favourite sentence. The succinct version doesn't necessarily mean "more idiomatic". Some grammar pedants might even frown at 今天我起床很早 because they might take issue with the omission.
Personally, I usually say: 我今天起得很早，我今天很早就起床了 or 我今天一大早就起床了.
The key character in 相信 is 信 which means faith/trust. (相 is just there to turn 信 into a standard two-character word. It can be omitted in spoken language.) I.e. there's some emotion involved. The object can also be a person or a belief (i.e. equivalent to "believe in").
For example, 我相信你 means "I trust you"/"I have faith in you/what ...
Interjection: What happened?; What's wrong?
你看起来很沮丧，怎么了？ (You look depressed, what's up?)
Depend on context '你怎么了?' could mean 'What happened to you?' or 'What's wrong with you?'
你怎么了？第三节才到学校。 - What happened to you? Came to school only when it was already the third period.
半天也找不到你，你怎么了？ - I can't find you for half a day, what happened to ...
I do not agree that 是 is acting as the copula in the sentence. Because even without 是, the following sentences contain the same meaning and only differ in tone:
This answer comes after reading
「是」，「的」與動詞名物化 by professor 石定栩 of PolyU in Hong Kong. (The title roughly translate to: 是, 的, and Normalization of Verb)
感冒 should be acting as a verb ...
开 has other meanings beside; 'to hold' (events)
举办 is a specific term for 'hosting' and 'organizing'. If an organization 举办 something, you expect it to be well organized.
开 is less formal than举办. E.g. 在我家开派对 is less formal than 在我家举办派对.
在我家开派对 can mean you casually call a few friends over to your house. Not much preparation is required
We say 开班会, not 举办班会 ...
For your question, as a native Chinese speaker, I use 法國。
(For illustration purposes, I have below pronunciations in Mandarin for your references. P: Pinyin, I: IPA)
There seems to be some categories of way we name countries:
Sound and meaning transcription.
e.g. 新西蘭 (New Zealand)
新 means new
西蘭 is the sound transcription
美利堅 is the sound ...
Both 年轻 and 年青 mean "young".
However, 年青 refers to adolescents. It's about the people at this stage.
年轻 means young; it means people who are between the ages of 10-20. but 年轻 can also be used to compare the ages; For example, person A aged 50 is younger than person B, who is at the age of 60. Even though people who are 50 and 60 are not young, but in ...
太快 in 你说得太快 is a degree complement for action verb
Structure: [V +得+ degree complement]
Example: [她 做得 很好。](She worked very well.); [你 说得 太快] (You speak too fast)
快 in 你快说 short for 快些 or 快點. It is an adverb for 'faster/ more quickly', and the sentence means "you, more quickly, speak" (a demand or request)
快些说 = "more quickly, speak&...
In my opinion, 你太快说 or 你太快说放弃了 is ungrammatical although the latter is fine to use colloquially (because we have more tolerance in spoken). A correct way to express this can be 你说放弃说得太快了 or 你放弃说得太快了.
Unlike English, an adverb modifies another adverb is not a common practice in Chinese. It's an arguable point. I can only think of an adverb that can modify ...
The other answer already addressed it from a general grammar point of view. I'd also like to point out the nuance between the two sentences.
When we say "你有什么事吗？", the speaker is not really sure whether you have anything or not, whilst with "你有什么事" the speaker has an assumption that you have something but don't know what.
One crude method for testing Taiwanse vs. Chinese usage is by running a verbatim
Here are some results:
各式各样 site:.tw about 761’000 results
各式各样 site:.cn about 24’100’000 results
but maybe Google isn't good with sc vs. tc:
各式各樣 site:.tw about 12’300’000 results
各式各樣 site:.cn about 315’000 results
There doesn't seem to be ...
各式各样 VS 各种各样
To this mainland speaker, they are not entirely the same. Both are common and we can't say one is more common than the other.
各式各样 is about the differences in 样式, while 各种各样 the differences in 种类. In other words, with 各式各样 we see all types of things within one category. With
各种各样 we see different kinds/categories of things.
Let's simplify the sentence to make it easier to identify the role of 是
他死了 -- he died
他(是)死了 -- he (indeed) died
我输了 -- I lost
我(是)输了 -- I (indeed) lost
Adding 应该 make it complicated
应该 in 我应该 means "should"
应该 in 我应该是 means "probably be"
我应该输了 -- I should lose
我应该(是)输了 -- I probably (really) have lost
It is hard to apply ...
The character 吃 is also a variant of 喫 (same pronunciation), where it retains the meaning of both "to eat" and "to drink".
This usage is preserved for example in Shanghainese, where 吃 is commonly used with liquids, whereas 喝 instead is almost never heard:
(吴语）吃茶 (qiek4 zo1), 吃汤 (qiek4 tong1), 吃酒 (qiek4 jieu2), etc.
Grammatically, 次 is a verbal classifier (a classifier proper), which expresses how many times the action indicated by the verb occurs. The origin of your confusion comes because classifiers are not used in English but they are natural in Chinese.
Classifiers (verbal or nominal) must come with a numeral phrase. In this sense, the numeral 一 (one) might be ...
There is no rule for this and is mostly based on preferences. If the verb for the two actions are the same, you can choose if you want to omit it. However, in China, often one way of expressing is more fluent and more widely used than the other. The exact rule is difficult to describe, but it is likely based on the rhythm and flow of the language.
You need to differentiate them as "话说" carries a different meaning. It is used when people want to start a topic. It is very commonly used in ancient novels, where authors always speak as a storyteller and use "话说" to begin the story. In informal conversations someone may also use it now (actually I used to say it many times), a little like "by the way" in ...
The major reason is that 兴奋 is generally used of people, and most commonly in the phrase 令人兴奋 lìng rén xīngfèn. It can also be used of other biological entities in a scientific context, closer to English excitation (and the original derivation of the English word excited).
The original sentence has 足球的兴奋, which sounds odd because of 足球 not being a "person" ...