One of the meanings of 開 is 沸騰 (boiling) in 《漢語大辭典》開32.
It's nothing to do with "open" or "how".
開水 boiled water
熱水 hot water
燒水 to boil water
When the water is still very hot, we can use 開水 or 熱開水 as hot water.
When it is warm, we use 溫水 or 溫開水.
When it's at room temperature, we use 冷水 or 冷開水.
When it's below, say, 10℃, we use 冰水 or 冰開水.
開 can indicate ...
账户 is the correct form, and 帐户 is a common typo seen a lot in online services.
账 or 账本 means "books", and 记账 is the action of "accounting". The word 账户 means a "bank account", and is also used as "online account" nowadays.
帐 has meanings related to cloth, like "mosquito net"(蚊帐) or "tent"(帐篷).
P.S. There is no entry for 帐户 in The Standard Dictionary of ...
My closer Chinese friends do use the terms 白人 and 白种人 neutrally in the same way we use "white people", but by and large I find Chinese people avoid these terms, and are set slightly on edge when I drop them casually into conversation. One friend told me she doesn't use 白人 because "听起来有种族歧视，不是吗?". Instead she and other Chinese usually use "美国人/法国人/英国人 etc." ...
From the point of view of computing, rather than linguistics, character sets are standardized and revised by committee.
In the PRC, the GB2312 character set standard has evolved into GBK:
With the arrival of GBK, certain names with characters formerly unrepresentable, like the "róng"(镕) character in former Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji's name, are now ...
You would say
which come from 天干, you could also say
If you know the person's surname, you could also say
In case if you want the specify that person's occupation
Most languages use an alternate greeting for telephone calls; the English "hello", although originating from before the telephone, was popularised by it, so much so that it has become a common greeting outside the telephone:
1883, alt. of hallo (1840), itself an alt. of holla, hollo, a shout to attract attention, first recorded 1588. Perhaps ...
肯定 certain; sure; affirm; (the outcome is virtually a fact)
确定 determine; confirm; finalize (the outcome is already a fact)
You can say, "Team China certainly (肯定) will lose to team Germany in the World Cup." The outcome has not been known yet.
You can say, "Team China beat team Japan and is confirmed (确定) to advance to the second round." The outcome is ...
I think those are generally fine for normal purposes, especially if you're emailing. Traditional etiquette has substantially declined with email use. 亲爱 is quite a bit more personal than the equivalent English "Dear xxx" though, so you could replace that with just a greeting, e.g. "王先生您好
But since you asked for "proper etiquette"... Here's a brief rundown ...
腰 or 腰子 is slang for kidney. In traditional Chinese medicine theory, kidney is responsible for producing and storing sperms. Thus 腰不好 becomes a slang implying weakness in bed.
It takes a cheeky friend to twist 腰不好 towards sex; In a lot of situations saying 腰不好 is fine. If you are unsure, it is always OK to say 腰疼 or 腰痛.
For people who tell me they "don't get" the tones, or who can say them but quickly forget them, I usually explain them as listed below. I imagine you're well past this point, but the visuals might help remembering them:
1st tone: Sing it -- ♪
2nd tone: Like a yes/no question -- ?
3rd tone: Low, creaky. -- Still can't think of a good symbol >_<
4th tone: ...
老外 and 洋人 are the general terms for foreign people, not specific to white people. 老外 is more often heard in oral Chinese. In formal situations, 外国人is more likely used. 洋人 is a somehow out of date word, seldom used today. 鬼佬 has an implicit negative meaning, don't use it.
And yes, Chinese refers to white people as 白种人 or 白人. But the words are not often seen ...
To fill in personal information to the organizer in order to participate in the activities.
To record the relevant matters in the form or the booklet of the organizer or the competent authority; to register for a service (such as to subscribe to a delivery service or a social networking website).
Depending on context, 暧昧[pronounced as ài mèi] can take on a few meanings. The following is quoted from Baidu with some explanations in English:
（态度、用意）含糊；不明白。(attitude or intent is unclear or incomprehensible)
（行为）不光明；不可告人。(behavior is dishonorable or secretive, like having an illicit affair)
男女或同性肉体关系还处于想象段。(at the non-physical stage of a relationship, ...
I am Taiwanese, and I have even had this "餅乾" once.
Generally, we can refer to almost every snack that is made with flour and "cracks" in your mouth as 餅乾. So when you say you want some 餅乾, people will not only give you crackers, but also cookies, potato chips, wafer cookies, wafer rolls, mille feuille, etc. These things have their own specific names, of ...
冬季 is more formal than 冬天. When used to refer to the season itself, the former is more commonly found in literature, the latter in vernacular.
However, when used to refer to something of that season, i.e. in a noun phrase, the 冬季 form is almost always used. For examples, "winter fashion" is 冬季服装, "Winter Olympics" is 冬季奥运会*. You would never use 冬天 for these,...
The pronunciation of "D"-"7" is similar to a Cantonese foul phrase (something similar to fxxking hard).
689 is a common way to refer to the current Chief Executive (CE) of Hong Kong, because he won the election in 2012 by having 689 electoral votes out of the 1200-person Election Committee.
"袋住先" is also a common Cantonese saying. "袋" here means the ...
The most general euphemism for "die" in Chinese is
Literally means "leave the world". Similar to the English expression "pass on/away".
It would be polite enough to address anyone's death and is commonly used in speaking and writing. So if you don't know which word is the best, just use this one – in only a few cases would it sound ...
"大衣" usually refers to a specific type of garment, it should be longer and more formal, something you will certainly take off when you stay indoors. No one would call a tracksuit top("运动外套") "大衣", but you can definitely call it "外套" or "外衣". I think a better translation for "大衣" is "overcoat" or "topcoat".
"外套" and "外衣" are pretty much the same, if anything,...
In a literal sense, 加油 means to step on the gas pedal when you drive a car.
Imagine what happens when you step on the gas pedal? More gasoline is added to the engine. What happens when more gasoline is added to the engine? The engine roarsssss!
If someone is having a hard time, they are like a car being stuck in the mud or a similar situation and unable to ...
I think I really need more context to tell the differences. Sometimes they are interchangeable.
变成 -> Become / Turn into
五年过去了，我从一个学生变成了一名老师 - I was a student. After 5 years I am a teacher now.
变化 -> Difference / Change (mostly used as noun)
五年过去了，这里还是没有什么变化 - After 5 years there's nothing changed.
变得 -> It's like 变成 but it should be used before a ...
There are people studying this.
Classical Chinese Character Frequency List
Modern Chinese Character Frequency List
Now do your own comparisons because I'm lazy.
Update -- I feel less lazy today so I'll give it a shot.
For obvious purposes, let't take the first 1000 characters in the classical list and see where they go in the trend. I can't do scripts ...
Yes 刻苦 is still commonly used in colloquial language.
“他那一年刻苦地学西班牙文” is grammatical. In spoken language it sounds more natural to say “他那一年学西班牙文学得很刻苦” .
刻苦 is 'hardworking' while 认真 is 'take seriously'. They are idiomatically used together ('认真刻苦'), but they are not synonyms. Actually you can say things like '他很认真，但是不够刻苦' meaning he is taking it seriously ...
I guess you just use them the same way as in English.
Look at e.g. this list:
Everything that uses 国际 translates as 'international'. Similarly in this list everything that is 世界 translates as 'world'.
A map that shows all the countries and their GDP (as a choropleth) would be:
In the case of a poverty average, I think you would rather use ...
After a bit of searching I could not find a proper resource to answer this question, so I started compiling compiled a comprehensive list by hand.
Since you say that the most common character for each initial+final+tone combination is enough for you, the answer is rather easy: we can cross-reference the pinyin and tone combinations with a list of character ...