I understand this to be "The Earth revolves around the Sun."
My question is: it feels to me the structure/order of the words is a bit strange. I could have said: 地球轉太陽圍住. Can someone explain why this is incorrect?
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Your hypothetical sentence therefore is doubly ungrammatical, because there is an object following an intransitive verb, and no object following a transitive verb.
Of course by 轉 we are referring to a spontaneous rotation by the object in question, not a rotation caused by an external force, because in that case it may also be transitive too:
e. 不要在上課時轉筆。Do not play with (lit. turn) your pen when having lessons.
There is not an external force that moves or rotates the Earth (at least in the linguistic sense); therefore 轉 here is intransitive.
Just a nit point, Chinese wouldn't say "地球圍住太陽轉", instead they would say "地球圍着太陽轉". "着" after a verb (圍 in this case) usually indicates a continuous state, and "圍着太陽" (around the sun) becomes an adverb describing "轉".
And generally in Chinese adverbs and adjectives are placed before a noun or a verb. A very obvious exception is the adverbs that can be prefixed with a 得, such as "他跑得很快".