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1

The word 什麼 being pronounced as shénmo is not Standard Chinese (although it should be readily understandable). Therefore, the answer to In what contexts is this true? is almost never, unless one is specifically transcribing a topolectical variation of Mandarin. That being said, Shénmo is probably a more accurate reflection of how it's pronounced among ...


5

Generally speaking: if 了 is within a single content word, it should be produnced as "liao". if 了 acts as an independent auxiliary word indicating a change of state or introducing a new situation (Verbs have no past tense in Chinese, therefore some auxiliary words would be used to indicate it), it should be produnced as "le". In Chinese sentences, there are ...


2

了 /le5/ (1) [aspect marker] indicating completed action (2) [final particle] indicating change of situation Example: 算了 /suan4 le5/ 對了 /dui4 le5/ ~ /liao3/ (1) [v] finish; end; conclude; settle (2) [verb particle] indicating possibility Example: 不得了 /bu4 de2 liao3/ 了解 /liao3 jie3/


2

There is no contradiction; both of the statements are saying the same thing. There is a final in Chinese that is pronounced [wɔ]. This is the final in syllables "luo", "ruo", "wo", "bo", etc. It is sometimes spelled "uo" (as in "luo") and sometimes spelled "o" (as in "bo"). Specifically, it is always and only spelled as "o" following b-, p-, m-, and f-.


5

I don't know how native English speakers feel, but my perception is that words like "hard" "luck" are close to the fourth tone when you read them alone. An interesting fact is that even the tones are the same, the characters are pronounced significantly differently in a passage. Here is a passage where all characters are of the fourth tone. You may try to ...


-1

I don't think there is a universal rule, but rather you just have to remember it as exceptions. Even for third tone "Liu3", it could be either /liu/ (溜, as in 你中文说得很溜) or /lio/ (六).


3

First, it is important to distinguish between the phonemic pronunciation and the phonetic pronunciation. The first represents how native speakers interpret sounds, the latter interpret how the sounds are effectively performed. The Pinyin final -iu is phonemically pronounced /jəu/, not /iou/ (reference: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


1

Many single characters in Mandarin Chinese will alter their pronunciation based on the tones of the following, more meaningful characters/words. For instance, 一 is pronounced yi1 (first tone), but when placed before a fourth tone character, its pronunciation changes to yi2 (second tone). These pronunciation changes help facilitate smooth tonal lines in the ...


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