The Story of 没
As other commenters have noted, looking for logic in language is almost always futile. No natural language is logical. But there is a historical logic to language development; even if the existence of a phrase is a historical accident, it's sometimes interesting to see when that "accident" took place, and why.
Such is the case with 没. One ...
Here's a good English definition and explanation with an example sentence to get you started:
A Students Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese
2 negative particle of the perfective: had not, have not, will have not; similar to 末 mò and often accompanied by perfective-final 矣 yǐ; mostly found in Zuozhuan 左傳 and Guoyu 國語, later mainly for archaic ...
I have some examples:
Also, you can say 我没关灯 by any chance is a shortening of 我没有关灯,but there is few people speak like that.
In some chances it is better to add 有 after 没, but in the other chances isn't.
You are correct in that 不得 is not the correct negation for 得 (děi). The generally recognized negation for 得 is 不必 (bùbì), although 不需要 (bùxūyào) and 不用 (bùyòng) are perfectly fine as well; you could also use 无须 (wúxū).
This particular example is completely idiomatic. 不错 is an adjective meaning 'not bad', the negation of 错 as verb 'to wrong; to mistake' is '没有错'.
Generally 没有 is used in past tense or perfect tense to falsify a statement of fact; 不 is used in present or future tense to express (un)willingness.
你吃饭了么？Have you eaten?
Any of these sentences would be grammatically correct. However
would be a better and more common usage in my opinion.
It would be even better to include the character in the parenthesis,
which means "add" or "with" or "include".
Firstly - you are correct, as are the others who have posted here. 没 is unusual in that it negates 有 and only 有，and for simplicity can itself serve as a contraction of 没有.
As others have pointed out, 没/没有 also has the unique grammatical role of indicating an action "not yet done" (in conjunction with 还 and 过) or "never done".
你去过香港吗？= Have you been to ...
有 can be translated as have in English. So when you want to say "I don't have money" in Chinese, you would say 我没有钱. If you don't have the word have in your English sentence, you don't need to use 有 in it's Chinese translation.
A couple of really common phrases that use the character 没:
没关系 = That's OK
没门 Literally means no door, but it actually means no ...
I am a bit confused by the 在 in your example sentence, since you don't need it there, 我不在8点起床，我(在?)9点起床。 Frankly, I wouldn't know what this sentence was supposed to mean, if you hadn't provided a translation. If you want to express that something occures at a certain time of the day, e.g. X o'clock, there is no need for 在, just use X点 or X点钟.
As for the ...
不满 is a single word. It means unhappy or unsatisfied. It cannot be separated into 不 + 十分 + 满. It's like you can't say "un-very-happy".
不满意 is a phrase, 不 + 满意 = not satisfied. It can be modified by 十分: 不 ＋ 十分 + 满意。
This is only a partial answer because I don't know all the details. I've been taught that when you use 没 with other verbs it indicates a different tense or time aspect.
我没去 (I have not gone)
我不去 （I do not go)
The opposite of "他没看书" (he did not/has not read books) is "他有看书" (he did/ has read books)- 没(has not) here replaces the adverb 有(has)- to indicate 'absent' of the action
The opposite of "他不看书" (he does not read) is "他看书" (he does read)- 不 here modifies the verb 看书 (read) into its negative form 不看书 (does not read) - to indicate 'refusal' of the action
没(有) means not have
不 means not
The confusion arises because 错 has multiple meanings:
As a noun, it can mean an error.
没(有)错 means have no error. Or idiomatically, not wrong.
As an adjective, it can mean bad.
不错 means not bad. This adjective is always used with 不 in front.
(有) is usually omitted in conversation.
The reason the verb 有 (yǒu) takes 没 (méi) while other verbs take 不 (bù) is that 没 (méi) means, 'not have' and 有 (yǒu) means 'have'; thus they are tied linguistically (interestingly).
BTW, 没 (méi) can never literally serve as a contraction for 没有 (méiyǒu) 'not have', because by itself, historically, 没 (méi) already meant, 'not have'. One shouldn't discount ...
Just a supplement. There is actually a word "不得",which is a formal way to say "should not","not to be allowed","to be prohibited".
You may say "我不得工作",which means "I am prohibited to work","I should not work", however, this meaning sounds very weird.
You should also take care of the pronunciations. When "得" means "to have to","must",the pinyin is dĕi,while ...
Put it in simple words: 不 means "not" while 别 means "don't do something", it is also good to compare them with another negation word:没有， which literally means lack of the action:having, so in other words it means don't have or doesn't have. Don't forget in Chinese we don't conjugate the verbs.
As far as I can tell, the question does not require you to leave the 能 in the sentence. Since the 能 is already implied by the 可能补语 structure, the most natural way to solve your problem would be to leave off the 能:
By the way, to me it sounds more natural to move the object to the start of the sentence:
... but it's ...
He is very unsatisfied.
He is not very ...full?
The problem is the usage of 满.
But only 满 usually means full/completed/filled
so 他不十分满 is wrong, how could a man get filled? (perhaps beer?)
他不十分满意 is OK, meaning He is not very satisfied
That is really a good question. For English, it could use "not" in both two situations.
In my own opinion, you should get contextual analysis. A is asking David's activity, so the correct answer is 他没（在）看书. If inquire David's interests or habits, then the answer is 他不（喜欢）看书。
Hope it is clear.
This is a very good question and I upvoted. I might not have a great answer but like to give it a shot.
他没看书 == 他没有看书 is used to state a fact he didn't/doesn't read books.
他不看书, depending on contexts, could mean:
He doesn't want to read books. Or he is not willing to read books.
He won't read books.
He is a kind of person who doesn't read books.
Although you can often split up verbs and nouns, there are some which feel awkward when you do it. 感兴趣 is one of them. Even though 感 is a verb and 兴趣 is a noun, it doesn't feel right to say 一点兴趣都不感. The normal way to say it is 一点都不感兴趣. As for "why?" I've no idea.
I also can't think of any nouns that demand a different verb in the negative.
According to the Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar by Edwin Pulleyblank, 蔑 may mean ‘destroy’, but is also a negative particle, used mostly in 左傳 and 國語.
[Miè 蔑 is a] form corresponding to wú 無 ‘not have’ in the same way that [...] wù 勿 corresponds to wú 毋 ‘do not.’
And here's what Pulleyblank writes about the relation of 勿 and 毋:
That is, the ...
it is kind of too formal or something, in daily life, people will not say things like "他不十分聪明", people will say "他不是很聪明"。"不满" is a word, short for "不满意", so you can say "他十分不满", again, in real life people will usually say "他很不满"。I don't think you need to nail the grammar down that precisely. Just get used to what people will usually say, forget about the ...