的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...
This question is really about: " when can we omit the possessive 的 "
的 1.(adjective suffix):
强大勇敢 (strong and brave)
强大勇敢的人 (strong and brave man)
You cannot omit the adjective suffix 的 and write 强大勇敢人
高大 (tall and big)
高大的人 (tall and big man)
You cannot omit the adjective suffix 的 and write 高大人
Adjectives that do not need ...
I think Chinese textbooks should start their 了 sections with this:
了 is not about time.
了 is not about tense.
You are only concerned with 了 as an the aspect marker, aka completed action 了, or perfect aspect 了, so:
"昨天去商店" and "昨天去了商店" are both valid verb phrases. The second one explicitly states that the action was completed, whereas the first one ...
When you want to express possessive relations concerning family members or relatives, you don't need 的.
I have done some searches with different expressions with and without 的, and I see that this rule is not applied consistently.
EDIT: There are ambiguous cases, e.g. 你们孩子 could mean "You children" or "Your children" (with ...
In Chinese grammar, words as 什么 are commonly known as interrogative substitutes, they substitute the word that should be found in the answer.
Therefore, they have inherent interrogative semantics, and don't require interrogative particles at the end of the sentence.
你在吃什么？What are you eating?
我在吃麻婆豆腐 I'm eating "mapo" tofu.
As you ...
Generally speaking, 了 following a verb indicates completion, while 了 at the end of a sentence or phrase indicates a change in state (and sometimes other things, 了 is very complicated). A common use of this final 了 is to draw the attention of the listener to the fact that something is now the case (that wasn't previously). In this case 我饿了 is saying: "I'm ...
Just to expand on Hugh’s answer a bit.
To understand what’s wrong with ‘我作天去商店.’ standing alone, we could translate it as ‘Yesterday I was going to the shop.’ Speaking English, if you said this and just stopped, the listener would think, well so what?
There are some verbs which are not used with 了 where a time phrase is enough to show past action. For ...
Yes 吧 is used at the end of a question when you already assume the statement to be true.
(modal particle indicating suggestion or surmise)
Whereas had you ended the question with ma (t: 嗎, s: 吗) then it is just a question, no assumption behind it, you are asking because you honestly have no clue.
As for the politeness ...
了 and 到/著(着) (zháo) serve different functions in sentences.
了 used after verbs implies a sense of "stopped, finished,completed, or done" on the action.
到 and 著(着) used after verbs indicate the result of the action.
I can't really tell the difference between 到 and 著(着), but it seems to me ...
的: positive response? Not exactly!
The function of 的 is well stated in 漢典:
4 . 助词，用在句末， 表示肯定的语气 ，常与“是”相应：这句话是很对～。
At the end of a sentence, 的 is an auxiliary word, indicating a response with emphasized confidence. It is often used in the "是……的" structure.
I think it's not proper to literally translate 表示肯定的语气 into "indicating a positive ...
之 is the wenyan equivalent of Mandarin 的. Here are some examples from a Classical Chinese textbook:
鄰人之父 > 鄰居的老人 ‘an old man who lived next door’
衛國之法 > 衛國的法律 ‘the laws of Wei’
仁義 之 道 > 仁義的 道理 ‘the doctrine of benevolence and righteousness’
Because parts of speech in wenyan are quite flexible, using 之 to link two terms ...
In Taiwan, According to dictionary owned by Ministry of Education.
的 can mean:
(助詞 at end of the sentence denoting affirmation, or intensify tone.)
有一天你會明白的它 is not correct. You put 它 at wrong position. 有一天你會明白它的 can be better.
[在 + v] = in the act of carrying out the action. e.g. 在穿衣服 (putting on clothes)
[v + 着] = the actions is in a continuous state. e.g. 穿着衣服 (wearing clothes/ the clothes is being worn currently)
警察在打人 - the police is in the act of beating up someone
警察打着人 sounds strange because unlike 穿着衣服 (wearing clothes) which can be easily in a continuous ...
But use of exclamative particles is highly informal, and it is advised that they not be used in formal documents or academic papers, unless it is specifically required to do so (such as the case of narrative telling). Some common examples are shown below.
了 le modal particle intensifying ...
The omission of 的 is not limited to family relationships. For the sake of scientific rigor, let's make a list of all the ways we can talk about a broken car:
Notice that the sentences vary between the mono-character 我 "my" and the multi-character 我們 "our," as well as between the mono-character 車 "...
晒 as a verb particle here indicate - 'All; completely'
Example: 走晒 (all left); 死晒 (all dead; completely dead); 冇晒 (all gone)
填好晒 = finished filling it all
The phrase 貼好 (finished sticking on) indicated the verb is completed already
Add aspect marker 咗 after 貼好 and say "貼好(咗)" reinforce the 'completed' aspect. Make it sound more asserting.
You can ...
When 掉 is used as a verb complement (not a verb), it indicates that something disappears, is removed, is disposed of, etc. as the result of an action. Not really "falling" or "missing".
擦不掉：Something can't be removed or got rid of by rubbing or wiping. Maybe it's a stain on your shoes, and you're trying to rub it off with a cloth, but it can'...
之 and 的 are essentially synonyms for different contexts.
之 is mostly used in set phrases, idioms, proverbs, poems, etc. (Also math with percents and such: 百分*之*百 100 points out of 100. )
的 is more fit for colloquial contexts.
Since 忍耐是幸福之门的一把钥匙 "Patience is the key to the door of happiness" is a phrase, it is fit to use 之.
If the form 我看了一本书 is correct then what role is 了 playing here and why does it sound to me like past tense with a not-a-tense-marker indicating tense?
'了' in "我看了一本书" is a [aspect marker] indicating completed action.
我看一本书 = I read a book
In 我看了一本书, the action '看' is completed, which imply 看 is not in present tense but in past tense.
I think the key is the usage of 了. In my opinion, 了 here works like a result complement, which indicates the status changed.
Semantically, they(with or without 了) denote the same meaning.
我买 vs 我买了:
我买 is like saying "I will buy" in English.
我买了 is like "I will have/get it bought. The status changed from not bought to bought.
Another example is 我走 vs ...
Both 你去了北京吗 and 你去北京了吗 are possible in practice, but they are used in different situations.
你去了北京吗 is used when you try to confirm the fact that someone really went to Beijing. Let's say you have two friends, Friend A and B. A told you that B has gone to Beijing last week. However, this information surprised you because you didn't expect B would go to ...
Grammatically, the completion is not only for verbs but also for adjectives. In your example 快了, 快 is an adj. Another example might be easier to understand. 苹果红了, apples turned red. 苹果熟了 is a similar example.
Here is the dictionary definition about this usage of 了.
了 / le /
Apples got red.
And the ...
车外： Object + related location/position = place term, n.
的： Aux. term to turn n. into descriptive, usually in possession/belonging relation; or habitually added after multi-character adj. (single character adj. usually is optional with 的)
阳光： n. subject of the sentence
格外： itself is adv. no need to add any aux term. 月亮格外明亮/汉语格外难学
的： Double mistake - no need ...
Actually, you're right, this is a history question rather a grammar one.
Chinese people do NOT differentiate "的得地" intentionally before the 1960s (or even 1980s).
Here is a blog I found “的地得”的历史——《得的篇》（上）, saying 老舍 mended his "的地得" in his new publications after 1956.
The verbal aspect markers V+咗 and V+好, and the verb complement V+嗮, are similar but not identical.
V+咗 is perfective. The activity is completed but its result still applies to the present situation. (In contrast to V+過, which is experiential.)
V+嗮 is for full extent, which may imply there is plurality in the subject. For instance, from 填好嗮地址, the listener ...